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Title: The Etymology of Local Names
With a short introduction to the relationship of languages.
Author: R. Morris
Release Date: August 8, 2018 [EBook #57658]
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ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL NAMES.
WITH A SHORT INTRODUCTION
RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGES.
BY R. MORRIS,
FORMERLY STUDENT OF BATTERSEA TRAINING COLLEGE.
Names have all some meaning when first imposed; and when a place is named for the first time, by any people, they apply to it some term—in early times generally descriptive of its natural peculiarities, or something else, on account of which it is remarkable, from their own language. When we find therefore, that the old names of natural objects and localities in a country belong, for the most part, to a particular language, we may conclude with certainty that a people speaking that language formerly occupied the country. Of this the names they have so impressed are as sure a proof as if they had left a distinct record of their existence in words engraven on the rocks. Such old names of places often long outlive both the people that bestowed them, and nearly all the material monuments of their occupancy. The language, as a vehicle of oral communication, may gradually be forgotten and be heard no more where it was once in universal use, and the old topographical nomenclature may still remain unchanged.—Pictorial History of England.
JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET,
PRINTED BY JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET,
Works Consulted 10
The Value of Local Names 11
The Composition of Local Names 13
DIVISION I.—DESCRIPTIVE ELEMENT.
(A) Names of Tribes, Individuals, Families, and Gods 14
(a) Tribes 14
(b) Families 15
(c) Individuals 17
(d) Gods 18
(B) Names of Animals 19
(C) Names of Trees, Plants, &c. 27
(D) Names of Minerals 32
(E) Names of Qualities 33
DIVISION II.—GENERAL ELEMENT.
(A) Names of Rivers, Lakes, &c. 35
(B) Names of Mountains, Hills, &c. 47
(C) Names of Valleys, Plains, Woods, &c. 53
(D) Names of Habitations 59
THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGES.
“Languages,” says the author of “The Cosmos,” “compared with each other, and considered as objects of the natural history of the human mind, being divided into families according to the analogy of their internal structure, have become a rich source of historical knowledge. Products of the mental powers, they lead us back, by the fundamental characters of their organisation, to an obscure and otherwise unknown distance. The comparative study of languages shows how races, or nations, now separated by wide regions, are related to each other, and have proceeded from a common seat; it discloses the directions and paths of ancient migrations; in tracing out epochs of development, it recognises in the more or less altered characters of the language, in the permanency of certain forms, or the already advanced departure from them, which portion of the race has preserved a language nearest to that of their former common dwelling-place.”
The coincidences between the languages of the globe have been made the subject of careful study by eminent scholars, who have established Comparative Philology upon the footing of a new science.
It has been found that mere verbal comparisons are utterly worthless in determining either the formation of groups of languages or their relations to one another. The dictionary of a nation may be borrowed, for words are soon lost and easily replaced; but the grammar of a language—that is to say, its syntax, conjugations, and declensions, the formation of new words from certain primitive forms, and those relational words which perform a similar function, as pronouns, numerals, and particles—is as constant and invariable as the nation itself. Grammatical analysis and comparison is therefore the only true method for the classification of languages according to their radical affinity; mere superficial resemblances of words prove nothing, nor have they any value unless tested and confirmed by arguments drawn from grammatical structure.
On the evidence afforded by a searching grammatical analysis, the languages of the greater part of Europe and Asia have been divided into three great families, whose grammatical forms are perfectly clear and distinct. They have been named Indo-European or Arian, Semitic, and Turanian.
(A) The Indo-European or Arian family of languages extends from the mouth of the Ganges to the British Isles and the Northern extremity of Scandinavia. The term Arian is derived from Arya, the original name of this family. It signifies honourable, or of a good family. In Asia we find two great branches of this family:
I. The Indian. This branch includes the Sanskrit (the language of the Vedas, the first literary monument of the Arian world), with its living representatives, the Hindustani, Mahratti, Bengali, Guzerati, Singhalese, &c.; the Prakrit and Pali idioms; the Siah-Posh (Kafir dialect), and the language of the Gipsies.
II. The Iranian or Persian. To this branch belong the Zend or Old Persian (the language of the Zendavesta), with its representatives; the language of the Achaemenians, written in the Cuneiform character; the speech of Huzvaresh or Pehlevi; the Pazend or Parsi; and the modern Persian. The following dialects, though not very important in a philological view, belong to this class:—the Afghan, Bokhara, Kurdian, Armenian, and Ossetian.
In Europe there are no less than six branches of the Arian family:
I. The Celtic. Though the Celts seem to have been the first inhabitants of Europe, very few of their dialects are now spoken, having been superseded by the Teutonic idioms.
Modern Celtic dialects are divided into two classes; (a) the Gallic or Ancient British, including the Welsh (Cymric), Cornish, and Armorican of Brittany; (b) the Galic, Gadhelic, or Erse, including the Irish (Fenic), the Highland Scottish (Gaelic), and Manx, the dialect of the Isle of Man.
II. The Teutonic. This branch is divided into three dialects; (a) the High German, including the Old High German, the Middle High German, and the Modern High German; (b) the Low German, including the Gothic, the Anglo-Saxon and English, the Old Saxon and Platt-Deutsch, the Frisic, the Dutch and Flemish; (c) the Scandinavian, including the Old Norsk, the Icelandic, the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish.
III. The Italic. To this class belong the Oscan, Umbrian, and Latin dialects; the Old Provençal, and the Romance languages (Provençal and French, Italian and Wallachian, Spanish and Portuguese) formed during the decay of the Latin.
IV. The Hellenic. This branch includes the Greek and its dialects, the Aeolic, Ionic, Doric, and Attic.
V. The Albanian; including the Geghian and the Toskian dialects spoken in Illyria and Epirus.
VI. The Slavonic or Windic branch is divided into two dialects; (a) the Lettic, including the Lithuanian, Old Prussian, and Lettish; (b) the Slavonic Proper, which is again divided into two branches, termed the Eastern and Western.
The Eastern dialect includes the Russian (Great, Little, and White Russian), the Servian, Kroatian, and Slovenian; and the Bulgarian, or in its oldest form, the Ecclesiastical Slavonic.
The Western dialect includes the Polish, the Bohemian, the Polabian, and the Lusatian.
(B) The Semitic Family (so called from Shem, one of the sons of Noah) is not so widely extended as the Arian family, but the nations composing it were the first to appear upon the theatre of history. It comprises the following branches:—
I. The Arabic, which includes the Ethiopian or Abissinian and the Maltese.
II. The Chaldean, which includes the Old Babylonian, the Chaldee of Babylon and Mesopotamia, the Chaldee of Daniel and of the Targums, and the Syrian (Aramaic).
III. The Hebrew, the language of Canaan, which includes the Phœnician and Carthaginian.
IV. The Berber dialects, which are spoken in Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Fez. The Haussa and Galla dialects are now considered as Semitic idioms.
(C) The Turanian family of languages is distinguished from the Arian and Semitic in the total absence of inflection.
To express the variations for case, mood, &c., Turanian words undergo no inflection; but an additional word is glued, as it were to the noun, verb, &c., as the case may be, in order to express the relations of case, mood, &c. Hence these have been termed agglutinizing languages.
To connect the idea of plurality with the English word boy, we merely inflect it, and obtain the word boys; but upon the principle of agglutination, a syllable indicative of plurality must be affixed, e.g., singular, boy; plural, boy-crowd. Thus the roots are never obscured, while they admit of a vocal harmony which is altogether peculiar to this family of languages; e.g., (Turkish) aghâ, a lord, becomes in the plural, agha-lar; er, a man becomes in the plural, er-ler, and not er-lar, as in the former case.
The vowels of the agglutinized syllables, it is easily seen, must harmonize with those of the roots; e.g., (Magyar) kert, a garden, makes kert-esz-nek to the gardener, and not kert-asz-nak.
There are two great divisions of this family:—
I. The Northern or Ural-Altaic division includes (a) the Tungusian dialects, spoken in Upper and Lower Tunguska, on the coast of Okhotsk, and by the Mantchoos or Mandshus (in China); (b) the Mongolian dialects, spoken in the North and South of Gobi, in Tibet and Tangut, in the plains on each side of the Volga (by the Olöts or Kalmuks) and by the Buriäts of Lake Baikal; (c) the Turkish dialects, spoken in Derbend, Krimea, Antolia, and Rumelia; (the Yakuts, the Tatars or Turks of Siberia, the Kirghis, the Bashkirs, the Kumians, the Nogais, and the Karatschais, the Usbegs, Uigurs, and Turkomans, speak Turkish dialects); (d) the Finnish dialects, spoken by the Hungarians, Lapps, Finns, Esths, Voguls, Permians, &c.; (e) the dialects of the Samoiedes and Ostiakes.
II. The Southern division comprises the Tamul, the Bhotiya, and the Malay.
The Caucasian dialects are degenerated branches of the Turanian family; they include the idioms of the Georgians or Grusians, the Suans, the Lazes, the Lesghi, the Mitsgeghi, and the Kerkessians and Abasians.
“Local Nomenclature of the Anglo-Saxons,” by H. Leo.
“Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici,” edited by Professor Kemble.
“The Germania of Tacitus,” edited by Dr. Latham.
Bosworth’s “Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.”
Meidinger’s “Comparative Dictionary of the Gothic Tongues.”
Jamieson’s “Scottish Dictionary.”
“The Saxons in England,” by Professor Kemble.
Worsaae’s “Danes and Norwegians in England.”
“The Northmen in Cumberland and Westmoreland,” by R. Ferguson.
Wright’s “Provincial Dictionary.”
ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL NAMES.
Names of places in a great measure belong to the oldest and most primitive evidences of language, and they are of the highest importance in the history of nations and dialects.—H. Leo.
It cannot be doubted that local names, and those devoted to distinguish the natural features of a country, possess an inherent vitality which even the urgency of conquest is unable to remove.—Kemble.
The geography and history of a nation must be sought in the language of the name-givers of that country, or in a translation of the language of the name-givers of that country.—Pococke.
Geographical nomenclature is a branch of geography generally left to chance or caprice; and it will not be easy to find any department so left, which has been more abused. Wherever names exist, and where these names may have existed for a number of ages, it appears something like sacrilege to disturb or change them; such names, besides the sacredness of antiquity, are often significant, and contain in themselves information as to the migrations of the human race, and the former connexion which existed between tribes now far separated. Names are seldom vulgar or ridiculous, and they furnish a copious fund of distributive terms, to obviate the confusion which arises to geographical nomenclature in the repetition for the hundredth time of rivers—Thames, Trent, and Tyne, &c.; and it fortunately happens that in no country, however barbarous or thinly peopled, are the great features of nature, as rivers and mountains, without names; and the name of a river or mountain may be appropriately applied also to the district in which it occurs.—Capt. Vetch.
“He who calls departed ages again into being,” says Niebuhr, “enjoys a bliss like that of creating.” The study of words does this; it recalls the past with all its associations, so that for a time it becomes a part of the present. It cannot be otherwise, for every word rests upon some fact; so that when we attempt to account for the meaning of a word, we only go back to the fact upon which it rests. There is one class of words which is very suggestive—we mean those names which have been attached for ages to places familiar to us from the days of our childhood, from our pleasure excursions, or from our course of reading. The thoughtful mind cannot remain long contented with names that convey no meaning with them; there is always the desire to retain them in the memory by some principle of association, and this leads to an inquiry concerning their origin and history, or when and why they were imposed. The study of place-names is one, then, of great interest to the historian and to the teacher. The signification of a single name throws much light upon the history of nations and their migrations. In point of fact, there is often more dependence to be placed upon words than upon history; for, says Halberstma, it pleases not the muse of history to speak but late, and then in a very confused manner: yet she often deceives; and before she comes to maturity she seldom distinctly tells us the truth. Language never deceives, but speaks more distinctly, though removed to a higher antiquity.
The object of the following pages is to supply teachers with the chief root or key-words which are necessary for the explanation of local names in England, and such kindred forms as are to be met with in those countries occupied by nations belonging to the same family, and usually termed Teutonic. It is a well-known fact that many of the names of places in England are also common to Germany. Verstegan, in his scarce work, printed in 1605, very plainly alludes to it. “Thus the Saxons,” he says, “who at first came unto the aid of the Britons, became about two hundred years after, to be the possessors and sharers of the best part of the Isle of Britain among themselves. And, as their language was altogether different from that of the Britons, so left they very few cities, towns, villages, passages, rivers, woods, fields, hills, or dales that they gave not new names unto, such as in their own language were intelligible, and either given by reason of the situation or nature of the place, or after some place in some sort like unto it in Germany, from whence they came—as the name of Oxford or Oxenford, on the river Thames, after the town of the same name in Germany, situated on the Oder; our Hereford, near unto Wales, after Hervford, in Westphalia. And so, in like manner, may be said of Stafford, Swinford, Bradford, Norden, Newark, Bentham, Oxenbridge, Buchurst, Scorethorpe, Holt, Mansfield, Swinefield, Daventry, Hampstead, Radcliff, Rosendale, and a great number of places in our country, that yet retain the names of places in Germany and the Netherlands (albeit the ancient orthography may in some of them be a little varied), as here to be reckoned up would be tedious.”
We have chosen English names as the basis of comparison because they are more familiar, and, indeed, of more importance than any others. Emerson, speaking of them, says—“The names are excellent; an atmosphere of legendary melody spreads over the land. Older than all epics and histories, which clothe a nation, this under-shirt sits close to the body. What history, too, and what stores of primitive and savage observation, it unfolds!”
The names of places in England, and among the Teutonic tribes generally, are composed of two parts. The first member is a descriptive word referring to some particular historical circumstance, to personages, to animals, vegetables, or minerals; or it may be merely an adjective. The second member designates, by some general and appropriate term, either the natural features of the country, settlement, or neighbourhood to be described—as hill, mountain, river, &c.—or some artificial constructions, as town, borough, field, &c. The first member is generally prefixed to distinguish places having similar positions—e.g., Staple-ford, Notting-ham, New-ark, &c. Sometimes the names of places are represented by a single word—e.g., Slough, Ford, Holt, Down, Berg, Furt, &c.
All places do not admit of explanation. Those ending with Ing or having after it Ham or Ton, are derived from the names of tribes, families, or individuals. The subject is naturally divided into—
I.—The Descriptive Element.
(a) Names of Personages (Historical or Mythical).
II.—The General Element.
(a) Water, River, Brook, &c.
(b) Mountain, Hill, &c.
(c) Valley, Plain, &c.
(A) NAMES OF TRIBES, FAMILIES, INDIVIDUALS, AND GODS.
(1) German.—This name was not applied to the people of Germany by themselves, but they received it from the Celts on account of their terrible war cry. The root of the word is the Celtic verb Gairmean, “to cry out.”
(2) Dutch (Deutsch).—This term, which is now applied to the people of Holland, is literally an adjective signifying “popular” (Diut-isc). It was originally applied to the language of the Teutonic people in order to distinguish it from the Latin. The word Teutones, the Latin form of the native word Theotisci, Teutisci, &c., is derived from the Gothic root Diut, a “people or nation.” It occurs in the modern name Teut-o-berger.
The following tribes have left their names as an element of local nomenclature:—
(3) Angrivari, in Angern, Engern, Anger-munde.
(4) Angles, in Angles-ey, Eng-land, Angeln, Hunger-ford (Angles-ford).
(5) Aravisci in the river Raab, anciently Arabo.
(6) Burgundians, in Burgundy.
(7) Cherusci (Crherstini) in the Hartz mountains, Hartz-burg, and Herz-burg. The root seems to be the Gothic Har, Haruc, “a temple.” In the poem of Beo-Wulf it occurs as the name of the great palatial hall of Hrothgar.
(8) Cauci, in Cux-haven.
(9) Catti, in Hesse.
(10) Eudoses, in Eyd-er, Eud-ing, and Dosse.
(11) Frisians, in Fries-land, Fris-by, and Fris-thorpe.
(12) Goths, in Goth-land, Gothen-burg, Goth-a.
(13) Langobardi, in Lombardy, Barden-gan, Bard-wick.
(14) Monavi (Menapi), in Man, Mona, and Menai straits.
(15) Saxons, in Es-sex (East Saxons), Sus-sex (South Saxons), Middle-sex (Middle Saxons), Holstein—i.e., Holt Sassen, or Olt Sassen, “Old Settlers.” The inhabitants of Holstein were called Holsati or Holzati, from the Platt-Deutsch Sitten, Satten “to sit.”
(16) Suiones, Suevi, in Sweden, Suabia, Oder, at one time called Suevus, and the Viadrus, whose mouth is still called Swine-mund.
(17) Suardones, in Schwart-au.
(18) Thuringi, in Thuringian-wald.
(19) Rugii, in the island of Rugen.
(20) Lemovii, in the river Leba.
(21) Dulgibini, in the river Dulmen.
(22) Sitones, in Sigtun, Situn.
The names of families and individuals enter largely into the composition of local names. They may be easily discovered by the particle ing before Ham, Ton, Hall, &c. Thus Birming-ham was originally the home of the Beormingas, the descendants of Beorm; Balding-ham of the Baedlingas; Bucking-ham of the Bucingas; Littling-ton was originally the enclosed residence of the Lythingas; Elving-ton of the Elfingas, and Killing-hall the fortified residence of the Cylingas.
Professors Leo and Kemble have thrown much light on this subject; the latter writer has furnished us with a valuable list of these family names in his Saxons in England.
The following extract from the pen of Mr. Wright will be of some service to the students of names:—
The family or clan did not always take its name from the chief who obtained the allotment of land; it was often but a branch of a much older family in the land from which the settlement came. Hence we find patronymics in distant parts of England, which would seem to indicate that different members of the same original family had joined in various separate expeditions to Britain; and it is still more curious that this identity of name is found in districts peopled severally by the different races, Angles, Saxons, or Jutes. This admits of two explanations; it shows the close relationship between the three races themselves, and it proves, probably, that when a great chieftain of one race, an Angle, for instance, planned an expedition to Britain, subordinate leaders from the other Saxons, Jutes, or others, were ready to enlist among his followers. Thus we find the Billingas at Billing-ham in Durham, at Billing-ley in Yorkshire, at Billing-hay in Lincolnshire, at Billing-ton in the counties of Bedford, Stafford, and Lancaster, as well as at other places, all within the district occupied by the Angles. We find a settlement of the same family at Billing-hurst, in Sussex, and some of them appear to have established themselves in the outskirts of London, and to have given name to Billings-gate. (There was a family of Billung on the Continent; and Hermann Billung was invested with the Duchy of Saxony by Otto I. In 1106 the male line of this house became extinct on the death of the last Billung, Duke Magnus, who left two daughters, Eilike and Wulfhild; Wulfhild was married to Henry of Bavaria, surnamed the Black, a descendant of the Guelph family.) The Bosingas are found at Bosing-ham in Kent, and again at the two Bossingtons in Hampshire and Somerset.
The Scearingas are found at Sharring-ton, Shering-ford, and Sharring-ton in Norfolk, Sheering in Essex, at Scarring-ton in Nottinghamshire, and at Sheering-ton in Buckingham and Wiltshire. We have the Haningas at three places named Hanning-ton in Northamptonshire, Herefordshire, and Wiltshire, and also probably at Hanning-field in Essex. When we examine further we find in these patronymics, names which belong to the great families whose history is mixed up in the earliest Teutonic mythology. The Waelsings, who are found at Walsing-ham in Norfolk, at Wolsing-ham in Durham, and at Woolsing-ton in Northumberland, appear to have been offsets of the great family of the Volsungar of the Edda, and the Volsungen of the old German romances. The Harlings (Herelingas), who are found at three places named Harling-ton in Middlesex, Bedfordshire, and Yorkshire, as well as at Harling in Norfolk, are also connected with the ancient Teutonic mythology, and their name is found at Harlingen in Friesland. The Swaefas, a tribe who was known to have dwelt on the borders of the Angles on the Continent, appear to have given their name to Swaff-ham in Norfolk. Mr. Kemble, quoting other well known names from the mythic and half mythic history of the continental Teutons, points out as further instances, that the Brentings of the northern romance are found in England at Brenting-ley in Leicestershire, and at Branting-ham in Yorkshire. The Scyldings and Scylfings, celebrated northern races, give their name to Skelding, and to two places named Skilling-ton in Northumberland and Dorsetshire. The Ardings, who are found at Arding-ton in Berkshire, and at Arding-ley in Sussex, are, he says, the Azdingi, the royal race of the Visigoths and Vandals; and the Banings of the Continent, over whom, when the curious Anglo-Saxon fragment called the Traveller’s Song was written, a Prince named Becca ruled, are recognised in Banning-ham in Norfolk. The Helsings gave name to Helsing-ton in Westmoreland, and to Helsing-land in Sweden; and we find the name of the Blecingas as well in Bleckingen in Sweden as in Bletching-ton in Oxfordshire and Bletching-ley in Surrey. In the Gytingas found at Guyting in Gloucestershire, we perhaps trace the Jutungi of Germany; and another Alamannic tribe, the Scudingi, are supposed to be traced in the Scytings, who gave their name to Shutting-ton in Warwickshire.—(The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon.)
The names of persons, especially those of princes and great landowners, constitute a very large element in local nomenclature. The name of Ella is found in Elles-mere (Ella’s-lake); and in Elles-croft (the field of Ella); and that of his son Cissa is found in Chi-chester (Cissan-ceaster, the fortified residence of Cissa), and in Cis-bury, the city of Cissa. Cerdic is remembered in Char-ford (Cerdic’s-ford), and in Chears-ley (Cerdic’s-meadow). Bebba, the Queen of Ida, has left her name in Bam-borough (Bebba’s city—Bebban-burg). The Christian prince Oswald, who was slain in battle, and fell at a particular place near Maserfield, has left his name in Oswes-try, or Oswald’s-tree. The name of the Danish King Canute is found in Knuts-ford (Canute’s-ford), Cnuts-delf (Canute’s-ditch), and in Canew-don (Canute’s-hill). Danish names are a very important element of the local names in the North of England—e.g., Orms-kirk, Worms-head, Ormes-by and Unst (Ormst), derive their names from some Scandinavian leader Orm or Urm. The name of Rafn or Raven is found in Raven-side (the seat or residence of Raven), and in Raven-stone (the stone of Raven). Uller has given his name to Ullers-thorpe, Hubba to Hubber-sty, and Ulfr to Ulles-water and Ulver-stone. Numerous other examples might be given of names of Danish origin, but many of them will be noticed as we proceed.
The following places are derived from the names of the original possessor—e.g.,
Eps-om (Ebbis-ham), Epha’s-home.
Malms-bury, St. Maidulph’s-city.
(d) Names of Gods.
It is well known that the ancient Teutonic tribes were heathens, and that in their original settlements they worshipped Odin, Thor, Tiw, &c., whose names are still preserved, not only in the days of the week, but in the names of numerous places.
Wuotan, Woden, or Odin, the presiding deity of the Northern nations, has his name preserved in O-dean, Wooden-dean, (Odin’s-hollow), Woods-dale (Odin’s-vale); Wednes-bury and Wan-borough (Odin’s-city); Wednes-field (Odin’s-field); Wam-pool (Odin’s-pool); Wam-brook (Odin’s-brook); Won-stone (Odin’s-stone); Wans-ford (Odin’s-ford); Wans-beck (Odin’s-rivulet); Wan-stead (Odin’s-residence); Wens-ley-fold (Odin’s-meadow-enclosure); Wans-dike (Odin’s-ditch); Odin’s-wald (Odin’s-forest); Oden-se (Odin’s-lake.) The name of his wife, Frigga, Frea, or Freyja, occurs in Freys-torp, in Friday-thorpe, and Frais-thorpe (Frigga’s-city.) We are reminded of Thor by such places as Thor-up and Thors-torp (Thor’s-city); Thors-dal and Turs-dale (Thor’s-vale); Tor-ness (Thor’s-promontory); Thurs-by, and Thurso-by (Thor’s-town); Thurdys-toft (Thor’s-field); Tor-boll (Thor’s-dwelling); Kirby-Thore (Church of Thor); Thurs-ley, and Thur-ley (Thor’s-meadow); Thors-aa (Thor’s-stream).
Thor was also known by the names of Donar (Thunor) and Hamar, which occurs in Thunders-field (Thor’s-field); and in Thunders-ley (Thor’s-meadow); in Hamer-ton and Homer-ton (Thor’s-town); Hamer-ton-kirk (Thor’s-town-Church); Hamer-wick (Thor’s-marsh); and in Hamer-stein (Thor’s-stone). The name of Balder, the son of Odin, and god of light, is still preserved in Balders-ley (the meadow of Balder); Balders-dale (Balder’s-vale); Boldre-wood (Balder’s-wood); and in Balders-haye (Balder’s-enclosure); that of Brage, the god of orators, in Brag-naes (Brage-naes, the promontory of Brage).
The god of war and of champions, Teu, Tiw, or Tyr, has his name conferred upon Tewes-ley, and Tew-ing (the meadow of Tew), and upon Tye-hall and Tye-farm.
Lok appears in Lox-wood, Lox-field, and in Lock-ing.
Seator appears in Satter-leigh, Satter-thwaite, and in Satter-land.
Perhaps local names are indebted to the fairy mythology. Mab, the elf queen, occurs in Mab’s-hill, and the merry Puck in Puck-pool Bay, Poock-burne (Pucke-ridge), Poock-hill, and Pucke-tye. Grim-a, a ghost, hag, or witch, is found in Grims-by, Grims-bury, Grimms-hoo, Grims-how, and in Grims-ditch. It is the safest plan, however, in tracing local names to their origin, to resort to such a mode for their explanation only when we find ourselves unable to offer a more rational etymology—that is to say, one in harmony with their natural or historical associations.
(B) NAMES OF ANIMALS.
The names of animals which enter largely into geographical nomenclature need little explanation; most of them, being familiar, may be easily identified.
Nate, Net (Scandinavian) horned cattle; Neat (English), occurs in Nate-ly, Nat-land, and Nate-ly Scures.
The Wild Boar, in Anglo-Saxon Ever (éofer, ebur, efer), is found in
Ever-shaw, the wild boar’s field;
Ever-shot, Evers-holt, the wild boar’s wood;
Evers-don, the wild boar’s hill;
Ever-ton, the wild boar’s town or enclosure.
Ever-leigh, Ever-ley, the wild boar’s meadow.
Eber, the German form of this root, occurs in
Eber-stein, the wild boar’s stone;
Eber-bach, the wild boar’s stream;
Ebers-berg, the wild boar’s hill;
Eber-ach, the wild boar’s dwelling by the stream.
The Bear (Bar, Barin in German) no doubt was an inhabitant of the following places:—
Bar-walde, the bear’s forest;
Bar-uth, the bear’s region;
Baren-spring, the bear’s spring;
Baren-wald-a, the bear’s forest by the stream;
Baren-horst, the bear’s thicket.
In the following places we find the name of the Badger (Broc, Baw, Baud, Bag, Badge, in Anglo-Saxon, and Dachs in German):—
Brock-ley, the badger’s meadow;
Brox-bourne, the badger’s stream;
Brox-ton, Broc-ton, the badger’s town;
Brock-thorp, the badger’s village;
Brock-holes, the badger’s caves;
Brock-les-by, the badger’s abode of the spring;
Brock-dish, the badger’s ditch;
Broc-den, the badger’s hollow;
Dach-stein, the badger’s stone;
Dachs-berg, the badger’s hill.
The Beaver (in German, Biber), occurs in
Bever-ley, the beaver’s meadow;
Bever-born, the beaver’s stream;
Biber-ach, Bibr-a, the beaver’s abode on the stream.
The Dutch form of the root Bever occurs in Bever-en (in the province of East Flanders), and in Bever-n (in the duchy of Brunswick), both signifying the beaver’s river isle.
The Buck (Bucca, in Anglo-Saxon) may be traced in
Bucken-ham, the buck’s home;
Buck-den, the buck’s hollow;
Bick-leigh, the buck’s meadow;
Bock-field, the buck’s field;
Bu-cup, the buck’s hollow;
Buck-low, the buck’s hill;
Bok-hurst, the buck’s forest;
Buck-land, the buck’s district;
Bickn-or, the buck’s border;
Buc-kle, the buck’s spring.
The low German form is Buck, the High German, Bock—e.g.,
Bocen-em, Boccen-heim, Bock-um, the buck’s home;
Boc-holt, the buck’s wood.
The Cow (Cu, Cy) may be found in
Cows-ley, Cow-ley, Cow-leaze, Cuerd-ley, the cow’s meadow;
Kay-land, cow district;
Co-dale, the cow’s vale;
Cos-grove, the cow’s grove;
Co-ton, Cow-ton, the cow’s town;
Co-stock, Cow-fold, the cow’s fence or enclosure.
The Ox may be traced in
Ox-ton, the town of the ox;
Ox-ley, the meadow of the ox;
Ox-ford, the ford of the ox;
Ox-fold, the enclosure of the ox;
Ochsen-werder, the island of the ox;
Oxn-ey, the island of the ox;
Ox-stones, the heights of the ox;
Oxen-hope, the shelter of the ox;
Ochsen-furt, the ford of the ox;
Ochsen-kopf, the summit of the ox.
The Calf (Cielf) occurs in
Kelve-don, the calf’s hill;
Calver-ley, the calf’s meadow.
The Hart (Heort), in German Hirsch, is found in
Hart-fold, the hart’s enclosure;
Hert-ford, Hart-ford, the hart’s ford;
Hart-ing, the hart’s meadow;
Harts-bath, the hart’s bathing place;
Hart-burn, the hart’s stream;
Harten-stein, the hart’s stone;
Hirsch-au, the hart’s meadow;
Hirsch-berg, the hart’s hill;
Hirsch-horn, the hart’s angle;
Hirsch-feld, the hart’s field.
The Kid (in Anglo-Saxon Tic, Tych, and in German Ziege), appears in
Tice-hurst, the kid’s forest;
Titchen-worth, the kid’s farm;
Titch-borne, the kid’s stream;
Tick-ton, the kid’s town;
Titch-marsh, the kid’s marsh;
Ticken-ham, the kid’s home;
Ziegen-hayn, the kid’s wood;
Ziegen-hals, the kid’s castle;
Ziegen-ruck, the kid’s ridge.
In Stags-den and Stags-bath we see the name of the Stag; in Dur-ness, Deer-hurst, Dear-ham, Dyr-have, Dar-field, Dere-ham, we find some form of the modern word Deer, with a more general signification. Like its Gothic and German cognates, it denoted any wild animal.
The Goat (Gaet) occurs as an element in the formation of the following names:—
Goad-land, Gat-acre, the goat’s field;
Gat-ford, the goat’s ford;
Gat-combe, the goat’s valley;
Yat-ton, the goat’s town.
The Hare (Hara) is found in
Hare-stane, the hare’s stone;
Har-pole, the hare’s pool;
Har-bottle, the hare’s dwelling;
Har-combe, the hare’s valley.
The German form, Hase, is found in
Has-lach, the hare’s lake;
Has-selt, the hare’s seat;
Hass-furt, the hare’s ford;
Hasse-field, the hare’s field and plain.
The Horse occurs under the forms Hors, Hest (Scandinavian) and Ross—e.g.—
Hors-ley and Ros-ley, the horse’s meadow;
Horsen-don, the horse’s hill;
Ross-thwaite, the horse’s path;
Hors-ham, the horse’s home;
Hest Fell, the horse’s rock or hill;
Hes-ket, the horse’s hut;
Hest-holme, the horse’s island;
Horse-lease, the horse’s meadow;
Horse-ford, the horse’s ford;
Ross-heim, the horse’s home;
Ross-bach, the horse’s stream;
Ross-lau, the horse’s meadow;
Hesten Field, the horse’s ridge.
The Sheep (Scep) occurs in
Ship-ley, the sheep’s meadow;
Ship-ton, the sheep’s town;
Ship-ham, the sheep’s home;
Ship-wash, the sheep’s ford;
Ship-lake, the sheep’s stream.
The same root is found in Shap-wick and Shap-moor, Shepper-ton and Shepp-ey; Skip-ton, Skip-sea, and Scop-wick.
The German form is Schaf, which is found in
Schaf-berg, the sheep’s hill;
Schaf-hausen, the sheep’s house or dwelling;
Schaf-en, the sheep’s isle;
Schaf-stadt, the sheep’s place.
The English Wether (Weder) is found in
The Lamb in
We find the Scandinavian forms for Sheep (Saudr and Faar), in
Souter-fell, Souden-hill, the sheep’s hill;
Far-leigh, Fars-ley, the sheep’s meadow;
Fair-field, the sheep’s field;
Souter-gate, the sheep’s street;
Fair-ford, the sheep’s ford;
Fair-leigh, the sheep’s meadow;
Far-a, Far-oe, the sheep’s island.
Sow (Sugu) may be traced in
Sug-ley, the sow’s meadow;
So-ham, Suers-ham, the sow’s home;
Sug-gate, the sow’s street;
Sower-by, the sow’s town.
Swin-burn, Swyn-bourne, the swine’s stream;
Swin-hope, the swine’s shelter;
Swines-co, Swines-cot, the swine’s hut;
Schwein-a, the swine’s abode by the stream;
Schwein-furt, the swine’s ford;
Schweins-berg, the swine’s hill.
Gris (Scandinavian) wild swine, gives name to
Gris-dale, the wild swine’s vale;
Mun-gris-dale, the monks’ wild swine’s vale.
We may trace the Wolf in
Woolver-hampton, the wolf’s home-town;
Woolvis-ton, the wolf’s town;
Wool-hope, Wolf’s-hope, the wolf’s shelter;
Woln-ey, the wolf’s island;
Woolver-den, the wolf’s hollow;
Wool-mer, the wolf’s lake;
Wolf-ham-cote, the wolf’s home hut;
Wool-pit the wolf’s pit;
Wools-ton, the wolf’s town;
Wool-wich, the wolf’s bay;
Wol-an, the wolf’s meadow;
Wolf-ach, the wolf’s abode by the stream;
Wolf-hagen, the wolf’s enclosure;
Wolf-stein, the wolf’s stone;
Wolfen-buttel, the wolf’s dwelling.
The Fox gives name to Fox-hole, Fox-hunt, Car-Fox, &c.; but Tod, another name for this animal, occurs in
Tod-bere, the forest of the fox;
Tod-burn, the stream of the fox;
Tod-mor-den, the marshy hollow of the fox;
The dog, Hound or Hund, is found in
Hounds-borough, the hound’s city;
Houns-low, the hound’s hill;
Hund-holm, the hound’s island;
Hun-wyl, the hound’s well;
Hun-ley, Huns-ley, the hound’s town;
Hun-feld, the hound’s field;
Huns-rucken, Hunds-ruck, the hound’s ridge;
Hund-loch, the hound’s hole.
The Squirrel (Dray) is the root of
Dra-cot, Dray-cot, the squirrel’s hut;
Dray-ton, the squirrel’s town.
Want-ley, Wantis-den, and Want-age, derive their name from Want, Wanat, the mole.
The names of Birds are sometimes to be met with in local nomenclature; among the most important are the following:—
The Eagle, Arl (German) in
Eagles-cliffe, the eagle’s rock;
Eagle’s-hay, the eagle’s field;
Ayles-bury, the eagle’s city;
Ayle-stone, the eagle’s stone;
Eagl-ey, the eagle’s river isle.
We find some trace of the Scandinavian name for the eagle (Ari, Arin, Ern, Orn) in
Arnes-by, the eagle’s town;
Earn-ley, Ar-ley, the eagle’s meadow;
Ears-dale, the eagle’s vale;
Arn-old, the eagle’s wood;
Arn-heim, the eagle’s home;
Arns-berg, the eagle’s hill;
Arns-walde, Arens-walde, the eagle’s wood or forest;
Arn-stadt, the eagle’s town;
Arens-burg, the eagle’s city;
Aren-berg-thal, the eagle’s mountain valley;
Arr-öe, the eagle’s isle;
Ar-schot, the eagle’s wood or field;
Arend-see, the eagle’s lake.
The Daw, in
The Owl, in
Owls-bury, the owl’s city;
Owl-ton, the owl’s town;
Eulen-gebirge, the owl’s mountains;
Ul-ey, Ugl-ey, the owl’s river island.
The Crow (Crawe, Anglo-Saxon; Kraka, Scandinavian) in
Crow-hurst, the crow’s forest;
Crow-land, the crow’s district;
Crow-borough, the crow’s city;
Craw-ley, the crow’s meadow;
Crayke, the crow’s region;
Crake-hall, Crake-hill, the crow’s hill;
Cracken-thorp, the crow’s village;
Kra-winkel, the crow’s angle;
Kre-feld, the crow’s field.
The Crane, in
Cran-brook, the crane’s brook;
Cran-field, the crane’s field;
Cran-ham, the crane’s home;
Cran-bourne, the crane’s stream;
Cran-ach, the crane’s dwelling by the stream;
Cranen-burg, the crane’s city.
The Scandinavian Trana, a crane, is perhaps found in
Tran-well, the crane’s spring;
Tran-mere, the crane’s lake.
The Swan, in
Swan-cot, the swan’s hut;
Swan-more, the swan’s moor;
Schwan-den, the swan’s ravine;
Schwane-beck, the swan’s rivulet.
The Dove (Culver), in
Culver-hayes, the dove’s field.
The Wren, in
Wren-hurst, the wren’s thicket;
Wren-thorpe, the wren’s village.
The Hen (Haen), in
Hen-don, the hen’s hill;
Hen-ley, the hen’s meadow;
Hinton, the hen’s town.
The Goose, in
Gas-garth, the enclosure of the geese;
Gos-forth, the ford of the geese;
Gas-dale, the vale of the geese.
The word Fowl, which occurs in numerous places, had originally a much wider meaning than at present. Any flying creature, was a bird; and in this sense we find it in
Fouls-ham, Ful-ham, the bird’s home;
Full-wood, the bird’s wood;
Fouln-ey, Fugl-oe, the bird’s island;
Vogels-berg, the bird’s hill.
The names of Fish seem rather scarce; we find
Fish-bourn, the stream, abounding in fish;
Fisher-gate, fish street;
Fisher-ton, fish town;
Fish-guard, fish enclosure;
Fish-toft, fish field;
Fish-field, fish field;
Fisch-back, fish rivulet;
Fisk-um-foss, the waterfall of the fish dwelling.
The Salmon (Lax) occurs in
Lax-ay, salmon river;
Lax-voe, salmon bay;
Lake-fiord, salmon firth.
The Trout (Truht) is found in
Trout-beck, the trout rivulet.
The Eel may be traced in
Aal-borg, eel city;
Aal-en, eel island;
Aal-st, eel district;
Aal-rust, eel torrent.
The Frog and Toad are perhaps the only reptiles we find in place-names. They evidently give names to
Frog-hill, Frog-more, the frog’s moor;
Frox-feld, the frog’s field;
Frox-ton, the frog’s town;
Friskn-ey, the frog’s island;
The Scandinavian term for the reptile is Padda, which occurs in
Pad-gate, frog street;
Paddon-Beck, frog stream;
Paddy-gill, frog rivulet; &c.
The insect Wigga, Wiega, a beetle, is perhaps found in
Wig-more, the beetle’s moor;
Wiggen-holt, the beetle’s wood;
Wig-sell, the beetle’s seat;
Wig-ton, Wigs-ton, Wiggin-ton, the beetle’s town;
Wig-toft, the beetle’s field.
In German, the name of the beetle is Kafer, cognate with the En-Chafer, which occurs in
Kafer-loh, the beetle’s meadow;
Kafern-burg, the beetle’s city.
(C) THE NAMES OF TREES, PLANTS, &c.
Trees performed no unimportant part in the division of land among the Teutonic nations; they were used as land marks and boundaries, and county courts were held under them.
The word Tree occurs very often in the names of places, and is no doubt connected with some historical circumstance: e.g.—
The Oak (Ac) is found in
Ac-ton, the oak town;
Ack-worth, the oak farm;
Auck-land, the oak district;
Aike-Beck-Mouth, the mouth of the oak rivulet;
Oak-leigh, Ock-ley, Oak-ley, Wok-ing, the oak meadow;
As-kew (Ake-skeugh), the oak knoll;
Ax-holme, the oak island;
Ex-fold, the oak enclosure;
Ex-twistle, the oak borders;
Oke-hanger-mere, the oak meadow-lake;
Oak-ham, the oak dwelling;
Ock-brook, the oak brook;
Uck-field, the oak plain;
Bald-ock, the bare oak;
Mart-ock, the market oak;
Eich-horn, the oak height;
Eichs-feld, the oak field;
Eich-stadt, the oak town.
The Ash (Aesc) occurs in
Ash-stead, ash dwelling;
As-cot, ash hut;
Ash-don, Ashen-don, Ash-down, ash hill;
Ash-combe, Es-combe, ash valley;
Esh-gill, ash rivulet;
Ash-ling, ash heath;
Ash-by, Ash-ton, aston, ash town;
Ash-well, ash spring;
Ash-borne, ash stream;
As-hurst, ash thicket;
Ash-fold, ash enclosure.
The Scandinavian form occurs in
Ask-rigg, ash ridge;
Ask-ern, ash dwelling;
Asker-sund, ash sound;
Ask-han, Ask-heim, ash home.
The German form is found in
Eschers-leben, Aschers-leben, ash field or level;
As-perg, ash hill;
Eschen-bach, ash stream;
Esch-wege, ash way;
Esch-weiler, ash dwelling;
As-sens, As-sen, ash dwelling;
Assen-heim, ash home.
The Alder is found in
Alder-bury, alder city;
Alder-ley, alder meadow;
Alder-minster, alder church;
Aller-dale, alder vale;
Aller-by, alder town;
Alders-haugh, alder hill;
Alder-mas-ton, alder marsh town;
Alden-ham, alder home;
Alder-shot, alder wood;
Alli-thwaite, alder path;
Aller-ton, Owler-ton, Eller-ton, alder town;
Elle-ray, alder corner;
Ell-feld, alder field;
Ell-bogen, alder bending;
Ell-rich, alder district;
Ell-wangen, alder meadow;
Erl-ach, alder dwelling on the stream;
Erl-angen, Erl-au, alder meadow.
The Broom gives name to
Brom-ton, broom town;
Brom-borough, broom city;
Brom-ley, broom meadow;
Brom-yard, broom enclosure;
Brom-hurst, broom forest;
Broms-wold, broom wood;
Brom-berg, broom hill;
Bram-field, broom field;
Bram-with, broom wood;
Bram-shot, broom wood;
Bram-ber, broom pasture;
Bram-cote, broom hut.
The Beech may be traced in
Bock-am, beech home;
Buch-au, beech meadow;
Buch-holz, beech wood;
Buch-horn, beech corner;
Buchs-weiler, beech dwelling.
The Birch gives name to
Berke-ley, birch meadow;
Birken-shaw, birch field;
Berk-hamp-stead, birch homestead;
Bark-by, birch town;
Birken-field, birch field;
Bjork-ö, birch island;
Birk-thwaite, birch path.
The Apple is found in
Apple-ton, Apple-by, apple town;
Appuldur-combe, Appuldre-combe, apple valley;
Apple-shaw, apple field or wood;
Apple-dore, Apple-thwaite, apple path.
The Hazel occurs in
Hazle-wood, hazel wood;
Hasel-bury, hazel city;
Hasle-don, hazel hill;
Hasle-wall, hazel bank;
Haysel-dean, hazel hollow;
Hazle-shaw, hazel wood;
Hassel-feld, hazel field.
The Lime-tree (Linde) occurs in
Lind-field, lime field;
Lind-ridge, lime ridge;
Lind-hurst, lime forest;
Lind-au, the lime meadow;
Linden-fels, lime hills;
Lindes-berg, lime hill;
Hohen-Linden, the high lime tree.
The Maple-tree is found in
Mapper-ton, maple town;
Mappow-der, maple dwelling;
Maple-hurst, maple forest;
Mapul-beck, maple rivulet.
The Pine occurs in
Pin-hoe, pine hill;
Pine-hurst, pine thicket; &c.
The Thorn gives name to
Thorn-waste, thorn level;
Thorn-bury, thorn city;
Thorn-ey, thorn island;
Thorn-ham, thorn home;
Thorn-ton, thorn city;
Pightles-thorne, the enclosure by the thorn;
Moster-ton (Mortes-torne), slaughter thorn.
The German form, Dorn, occurs in
Dorn-burg, the thorn city;
Dorn-holz-hausen, thorn wood-dwelling;
Dorn-han, thorn field;
Dorn-stetten, thorn town.
The Willow (Welig) may be traced in
Willough-by, Willough-ton, willow town;
Withe-ridge, willow ridge;
With-ern, willow dwelling;
Withy-sike, willow brook;
Withy-ham, willow home;
Weid-a, willow water dwelling;
Weid-en, willow district;
Weiden-au, willow meadow.
Sauch, Sough, Say, a willow, is the root of Nick-sough, Saw-ley, Saigh-ton, and Saug-hall.
The Yew appears in
Ew-hurst, yew forest;
Ew-den, yew hollow;
Ewan-rigg, yew ridge;
Iw-ern, yew dwelling;
The Views, the yews;
Eiben-stock, yew enclosure.
The Brier occurs in
Brier-ley, briar meadow;
Bre-wood, briar wood.
The Fern gives name to
Furn-ham, Farn-ham, fern home;
Fern-ton, fern town;
Farns-ley, fern meadow;
Farn-borough, fern city.
The Furze (Fyrs), Whin, Scandinavian, occurs in
Furz-leigh, the furzy meadow;
Furz-brook, the furzy brook;
Furz-moor-gate, the furzy moor-street.
Flax (Lin) appears in
Lin-gards, flax enclosure;
Lin-thwaite, flax path;
Lin-ton, flax town;
Lin-dale, flax vale.
Grass (Gaers, and Sprot) is found in
Gras-mere, grass lake;
Gar-grave, grass grove;
Gras-garth, grass enclosure;
Gars-ton, grass field;
Gar-stang, grass pool;
Gars-dale, grass vale;
Gras-croft, grass field;
Grass-by, grass town;
Gras-brook, grass brook;
Gars-by, the enclosed grass town.
Cress (Nasturtium) occurs in
Cress-well, nasturtium spring;
Creas-y, nasturtium dwelling by the stream;
Cress-ham, nasturtium home;
Cress-low, nasturtium hill.
Moss gives name to
Mose-ley, Moss-ley, moss meadow;
Mos-ton, moss town;
Mus-borough, moss city;
Gil-moss, the rivulet of the moss;
Moss-soe, moss lake;
Mosen-berg, moss hill;
Mos-bach, moss stream.
Sedge appears in
Sedge-moor;, Sedge-ly, sedge meadow;
Sedg-barrow, sedge wood.
The Rush is an element in
Rush-ley, rush meadow;
Rush-hulme, rush island;
Rush-mere, rush marsh;
Ris-borough, rush city;
Rus-combe, rush valley;
Rus-warp, rush mound;
Rush-worth, rush farm;
Rus-land, Rush-land, rush district.
The Nettle in Nettle-combe, Nettle-den, Nettle-stead, and Nettle-ton.
The Reed gives name to
Reed-ham, reed home;
Rid-ley, reed meadow;
Ror-bach, reed stream; &c.
Barley (Bigg) may be traced in
Big-by, barley town;
Byg-land, barley district.
Beans appear in
Bin-stead, bean dwelling;
Been-ham, bean home;
Bine-gar, bean enclosure;
Bin-don, bean hill;
Bin-field, bean field.
The Oat occurs in Oad-by, Ot-ley, and Oat-land.
The Scandinavian Haver (oats) gives names to Haver-ham, Haver-ford, and Haver-thwaite.
The Slow is easily seen in Slow-burn and Slow-combe.
Haw-ley and Haw-don derive their name from the haw; Apse, Asp-ley, and Asp-don from the asp (aps).
Wheat appears in Whit-field, Wheat-ley, Wheat-hamp-stead, Wheat-on, Whate-ly, and Whit-barrow.
Shrop-ham, Shrop-shire, Scrop-ton, Scrop-ley-hill, Scrap-loft, and Scrobb are derived from Scrybe, a shrub; as well as Screve-by, Scroo-by, and Scraf-ton.
Wort-ley, Wort-well, Wor-stead, Wors-borough, Wors-ley, Wroot, Wurz-burg, Wurz-ach, Wurz-em, &c., contain the root Wyrt, Wort, an herb.
(D) NAMES OF MINERALS.
Erz (German), Ore, occurs in
Erz-gebirge, ore mountains;
Erz-en, ore district.
Clay-gate, clay street;
Clay-don, clay hill;
Clai-borne, clay stream.
Chisel-hurst, gravel forest;
Chisel-bury, gravel city;
Chesil-bank, gravel bank.
Chalk gives name to Chalk-grove, Chal-ford, Chilt-ern, Kalk-stein, and Calke.
Gries (German), gravel, is found in
Gries-bach, gravel stream;
Gries-heim, gravel home;
Gries-kirch, gravel church; &c.
Marl occurs in Mar-low, Marl-borough, and Marls-ton.
Salt appears in Salter-ton, Salt-ash, Saltn-ey, Sal-combe, Salt-coats; Salz-brunn, Salz-burg, Salz-dahl-um, Salz-wedel, &c.
Eisen (German), iron, is found in Eisen-ach, Eisen-berg, Eis-eld, Eis-leben, Eis-grub, Eisen-burg, &c.
Sand gives name to Sand-wich, Sand-hurst, Sander-croft, &c.
Stone (Stan) appears in Stone-leigh, Stan-ley, Stan-ton, Staines, Stan-bury, Stain-land, Stain-drop, Stan-hope; Steen-bergen, Steen-wyk, Stein, Stein-ach, Stein-au, Stein-bach, Stein-borth, Stein-holm, Stein-horst, Stein-weiss, &c.
Al, Alt, Ald, Au (old)—Ald-borough, Al-thorpe, Al-bourne, Al-ton, Al-ford, Al-cester; Alten-burg, Alten-markt, Alten-dorn, Alten-feld, Al-torf, Olde-bach, Olde-boorn, Olden-dorf, Olden-burg, Au-burn, and Au-thorpe.
Brad (broad)—Brad-well, Brad-stock, Brad-ford; Breit-horn, Breiten-bach, &c.
Cheil, Col, Cald (cold)—Col-burn, Coal-brook, Cold-stream, Cold-side, Chels-field, Cowd-ham, Child-hay, Chilt-thorn, Chil-worthy, Cald-well; Calde-cote, Cal-bourne, Caude-bec (Calde-bec), Colden-weide, Colden-hoff, Kalt-brun, Kalten-nord-heim, and Kalten-sund-heim.
Deop (deep)—Dept-ford, Deep-dale, Diepen-beck, Diepen-heim, Diepen-au, &c.
Kine, King (royal, king)—Kine-ton, Kinner-ton, Kings-bury, Kinger-by.
Ost, Oost, Osten (east)—East-bourne, Eas-ton; Ost-ende, Oster-ach, Oster-end, Oster-holz, Oste-rode, Oster-sunde, Ost-hem, Ost-heim, Ost-wolde, Oost-burg, Ooster-einde, Ooster-wyk, Ooster-wolde, Oost-kerke, &c.
Hol (hollow)—Hol-beach, Hol-land, Hol-born, Hol-bek, Hollen-beek, &c.
Lang (long)—Lang-baurgh, Lang-don, Langen-hoe.
Lille (little)—Lilles-don, Lilles-hall.
Mickle, Much (large)—Mickle-fell, Mickle-field, Much-wen-lock.
Nor, Nord (north)—Nor-folk, Nor-ham, Nor-mandy, Nor-mark, Nor-den, Nord-heim, Norr-telge, Norr-land, Norr-koping, Nord-horn, Noord-welle, Noorder-wyk, Norden-ey, &c.
Neu, Nieu (new)—Neu-berg, Neu-haus, Neu-land, Neu-stadt, Nieu-wold, Nieuw-kerk, Nieu-berg, Ny-stad, Ny-kerk, &c.; New-lands, New-ark, New-bury, New-ton, &c.
Nieder, Nether (downward or further)—Nether-bury, Nether-compton, Nether-lands, Nieder-bronn, Nieder-rad, Niedern-hall, Nieder-wald, Nider-dorf, &c.
Sud, Sut (south)—Sur-rey, Suf-folk, Sut-ton, Sus-sex, South-leigh, Sout-ham, South-end, Sut-torp, Sud-bury, Suder-oe, Sunder-land, Kalten-Sund-heim, Sund-gau, Soder-fors, Soder-hamn, Soder-telge, Sorer-Koping, &c.
Sell (happy, fortunate)—Sel-by, Sel-kirk, Sell-hurst, &c.; Seligen-stadt, Seligen-thal, &c.
Up, Upper (higher)—Up-ton, Up-hay, Up-lyme, Up-sala, &c.
Under (lower) Under-barrow, Under-cliffe.
West, Wester, Vester (west)—West-bury, Wester-borg, Wester-by, Wester-holt, Wester-land, Wester-loo, West-heim, West-land, West-rup, Westr-um, Vest-irg, Vester-hoe, &c.
(A) WORDS SIGNIFYING WATER, RIVER, &c.
Ea.—This Anglo-Saxon word signifies (1) water in general, and (2) any running body of water, river, &c.—It occurs in the names of rivers, in the names of places near rivers, and in the names of marshes formed by rivers.
The rivers Medway and Stour were anciently written Meduw-ea, and Stur-ea. In the East Anglian counties the term is still preserved, for we meet with Popham’s ea, St. John’s ea, Hammond eau, &c.
Eye, Yeo, and Aye, are slightly altered forms of the same root, and ea is another name for the river Leven.
E-hen, fowl river;
Ea-mont (Ea-mot), water-meeting.
The following places near rivers contain some form of the Anglo-Saxon root, ea:—
Chels-ea, the cold river-marsh;
Batters-ea, St. Peter’s river-marsh;
It formerly belonged, together with Peter’s-ham, to St. Peter’s Abbey, Cherts-ey.
Ea-ton, E-ton, the town of the river;
E-dale, the river vale;
E-rith, water channel;
Ea-land, Yea-land, river district;
Eg-ham, the dwelling on the stream.
The plural form, Eas, water-course, occurs in Eas-dale, Eas-writh, and Eas-tyn.
In the Gothic we meet with the following cognate forms:—aha, aue, awe, owe, ahva, and ach, e.g.,
We find a, a contraction of aha, in Schwein-a, Asch-a, Born-a, Buch-a, Baren-wald-a, Konigs-werth-a, Hoyers-werd-a, Berk-a, Vach-a, Goth-a, &c.
In Burgundy, we find the terminations ay, oy, and y, used to designate habitations established along running water, e.g.—Cambr-ay, Tourn-ay, Dou-ay, Quesn-oy, Chaum-y, &c.
The ending ow, in Beesk-ow, Godan-owa, and Buch-ow, is another form of the same root.
The form Ach occurs in
Stein-ach, the stony-dwelling on the stream;
Wurz-ach, the herb dwelling on the stream;
Wolf-ach, the wolf’s dwelling on the stream;
Rod-ach, the cleared spot or path on the stream.
The plural form, ar, er, signifying the confluence of waters, occurs in Ohre, Er-furt, Ohr-druf, and Neck-ar.
The Scandinavian forms for water, are, A, Aa, and Aae.
In England we find Cald-a, Routh-a, Rath-a, Ay-am, Ay-cliffe, &c.
Aa occurs as the name of several rivers in Hanover, France, Brabant, Groningen, and Switzerland.
Aa is found in
A-bo, the dwelling by the water;
A-land, water district;
A-hus, the house by the water;
A-dorf, Ay-throp, the village by the water.
Ain, the river, forms part of the following names:—Glomm-en, Alt-en, Ul-en, Sus-en, &c.
Beck (Scandinavian), a rivulet.—In England, the following places contain this root:—
Hol-beck, hollow rivulet;
Hil-beck, hill rivulet;
Swarth-beck, black rivulet;
Beck-with, the wood of the rivulet;
Becken-ham, the home of the rivulet;
Wans-beck, Odin’s rivulet;
Coupland Beck (Coupman Beck), merchant’s rivulet;
Bex-ley, the meadow of the rivulet;
Beck-ford, the ford of the rivulet, called the Yare or Yarty.
In Denmark we meet with Aale-beks, Aal-bek, Egje-bek, Vinde-bek, and Hol-bek.
In Oldenburg we find Vis-beck, sacred rivulet; in the south of Luxemburg we meet with Becke-rich, the district of the rivulet.
In West Flanders the form beke occurs in Roos-beke, Wam-beke, Haerle-beke, Meule-beke, &c.; in south Brabant the form beeke is prevalent, e.g.—Buns-beeke, Clab-beeke, &c. We also meet with a Becke-voort, having the same signification as Beck-ford in England. The root Beck occurs very frequently in the names of places in the neighbourhood of the rivers Rhine and Elbe, e.g.—Wandes-beck, Schwarzen-beck, Flot-beck, Stein-beck, Barn-beck, Suder-beck, Hals-beck, Schip-beck, &c.
In France we find the exact spots where many of the old Norse leaders settled down, by the presence of this root—e.g.,
Bol-bec, the habitation by the rivulet;
Foul-bec, the rivulet of birds;
Ro-bec, the rivulet of the cleared ground;
Caude-bec, the cool rivulet.
In Germany and Austria we find the cognate form, Bach, a rivulet—e.g.,
Hunds-bach, the hound’s rivulet;
Ror-bach, the reed rivulet;
Gries-bach, the gravelly rivulet;
Finster-bach, the dark rivulet;
Eschen-bach, the ash rivulet;
Ross-bach, the horses’ rivulet;
Erl-bach, the alder rivulet;
Alde-bach, the ancient rivulet;
Fisch-bach, the fish rivulet;
Bem-bach, the tree rivulet;
Wam-pach, the deep rivulet.
Bath (baed, baeth, bad, Anglo-Saxon), water.—Bath, Bath-ford, Bath-easton, Bad-by, Bad-bury, Badon-hill, Bux-ton, Ba-ke-well, &c.
The German form, Bad, Pad, occurs in Baden, Wies-baden, Carls-bad.
Borne, Bourne, Burn, Burne (Anglo-Saxon), a stream, from Birnan, to burn.—It “denotes the bubbling of a welling running stream with the singing of the boiling water and the flaming of fire.”
Winter-borne, the stream flowing in the winter season;
Sher-borne, the clear stream;
Ty-born, the district stream;
Hol-born, the hollow stream;
Col-burn, the cool stream;
Hart-burn, the hart’s stream;
Burn-side, the habitation of the stream;
Burn-ham, the stream dwelling;
Au-burn, the ancient stream;
He-burn, the high stream.
We find Born on the continent, in Sal-born, Pader-born, Sonne-born, Eschen-born, &c.
The German form, Brun, occurs in
Wolf’s-brunnen, the wolf’s stream;
Kiesel-brunn, the gravelly stream;
Schön-brunn, the bright stream;
Bruns-wick, the city on the stream;
Bruns-buttel, Bruns-torp, the village on the stream.
Botten, Botn (Scandinavian), the sea.—Gulf of Bothnia, Norr-botten, Boden-see, Bott-sand, Holt-pade, Lacus Bodam-icus (Lake Constance), Botten Viken, Botten Hafvet, &c.
Brigg, Bridge, a passage of wood or stone over a river.—It is often applied to fording and landing places.
Brix-ham, the home of the bridge;
Brix-ton, the town of the bridge;
Bris-tol, the dwelling-place of the bridge.
The Scandinavian form, Bro, occurs in
Vester-bro, west-bridge; &c.
As cognate forms, we find Bruges, Esten-brug, Coppen-brugge, Brugg, Brig, Inns-bruck, Del-bruck, Konigs-bruck, Hers-bruck, Bruck, Brucken-au.
Bred, Bread (Anglo-Saxon), border, shore-bank.—Bread-sale, Bret-by clump, Bred-hurst, Bred-field, Bred-sted.
Brad (Anglo-Saxon), broad, expansive, the expansion of a river in a flat country, a lake so formed.—Outton-broad, Braydon-broad, Breydon-water, Mut-ford-broad.
Broc (Anglo-Saxon), a brook, a rushing stream.—Brox-ash, Brox-bourne, Ock-brooke, Cole-brooke, Ful-brook, Wam-brook, Mill-brook, Bruck-land.
We find the same root in Rad-brock, Alten-brock, Ooster-brock, Wester-brock, Strad-broke.
Bruoch (old High German), and Bruch (German), evidently cognate forms, signify a bog or marsh, e.g.—Alten-bruch, Bruch-sal, Bruch-berg and Brussels (Bruschels).
Ceol, Ciol (Anglo-Saxon), Keol (Danish), a ship.—Kiel, Kieler-fiord, Culen-burg, and Kuylen-burg.
Crundel (Anglo-Saxon), a water-course, “a spring or well with its cistern, trough, or reservoir to receive water.”—Grindle, Grindla-ton, Grindles-mere, Cron-dall, Crow’s Crundel, Cradwan Crundel (Crowden Farm).
Comber (Scandinavian), Kumpr (Old Norse), a running sheet of water; and hence it enters into combination with the names of places bordering on ponds and water-troughs.—Comber-ton, Comber-mere, Comber-bach.
Dam, from Dammen (German), to bank, dam.—Amster-dam, (Armstel-dam), Rotter-dam, Saar-dam, Schie-dam, &c.
Delve (English), to dig.—Delve is a local word, signifying a quarry or ditch.—Delven-au and Delft.
Dic (Anglo-Saxon), a ditch, dike, or river.—Wans-dike, Wran-dyke, Dish, Flen-dish (Flamin-dic), Cars-dyke, Hague-dike, Dyck-buttel, Wolvers-dyke, &c.
Diupr, diup (Scandinavian), deep.—It is often applied to parts of the sea, and to rivers.—Dieppe, Diupa, Depe-dale, Hollands-diep, Mars-diep. We also find Linn Deeps.
Dub (Scandinavian), a pool or piece of water (from Dyb, (Danish), deep).—Ash-dub, the ash-pool.
Efes, Eves (Anglo Saxon), the bank of a river, a border, edge of a mountain.—Eaves-ham, Habergham-eaves, Eves-batch, Eves-knoll.
Elf (Scandinavian), a river.—Elfs-burg, Elfs-nabben, Kong-elf, Elf-karle-by, Elbe, Alb, &c.
Fiord (Danish), Fiorth (Old Norsk), Firth (Scotch), an inlet of the sea, a bay, a station for ships.—Firth of Forth, Firth of Tay. (Frith is a mis-spelling for Firth.)
The Ford in Mil-ford, Haver-ford, Water-ford, is not to be confounded with Ford, a passage, but is another form of the Scandinavian Fiord, in Kieler-fiord, Ecken-fiord, Laxe-fiord, &c.
Ford, Fort, Fyrd (Anglo-Saxon), Forth (Scandinavian), a passage through a stream.
Holm-forth, island ford;
Spot-forth, the place at the ford;
Sand-ford, Mud-ford, Brad-ford, ford;
Cuck-ford, the rapid ford;
Whit-ford, the wide ford;
Ox-ford, the ford of the ox;
Rom-ford, the broad ford;
Stam-ford, the stony ford;
Here-ford, the ford of the army;
Wad-ford, the waded ford;
Sto-ford, the dwelling-place at the ford;
Ash-ford, the ford of the ash;
Frods-ham, the home of the ford;
Tiver-ton (Twy-ford-tun), the two ford town.
The German Furt, a ford, occurs in Hirsch-furt (Hart-ford), Her-furt (Here-ford), Schwein-furt (Swine-ford), Ochsen-furt (Ox-ford).
The Dutch Voort, a ford, is found in Wester-voort, Becke-voort, Amers-foort, Brede-voort, &c.
Fen, Faen (Anglo-Saxon), wet-land.—Fen-ham Flats, Fen Ditton, Walling Fen, Fen-stan-ton, Feni-ton, Fins-bury, Fen-brig, &c.
The Dutch form, Veen, occurs in Amster-Veen, and in Ven-lo, &c.
Fljot, Floi, Flod (Scandinavian), Fleot, Fleth (Anglo-Saxon), Fleet (English), a flow or flush of water, channel or arm of the sea between the coast, and an island, a river, a tide creek.—The presence of the root marks habitations on the sea, rivers, or canals.—The Fleet, Long-fleet, Ben-fleet, Shal-fleet, Salt-fleet, Fax-fleet. The Flow (a piece of water in Scotland), Flow Moss, Solway Flow, Flout-ern, Scar-let, and Flow-ton.
In France the root Floi occurs under the form, Fleur, in Bar-fleur, Har-fleur, Vite-fleur (White-fleet), Flot-beck, Pos-flethe, Beyden-fleth, and Aver-fleth.
Fors, Forse, Force, Foss (Scandinavian), a water fall.—River Foss, Forss-water, Forse, Forsin-ard, Low-force, Scale-force, Billing-fors, Fos-kilde, and Fos-land.
Gat (Scandinavian), a sound.—Catte-gat, the Gatt, Helle-gat, Rams-gate, Mar-gate.
Gau (German), a district watered by a river.—Aar-gau, Tor-gau, Breis-gau, Bur-gau, Wolve-ga, and Finke-ga.—Gaw, in England, as a local word, signifies a hollow with water springing in it, a furrow.—Gaw-thorpe, Goy-don, &c.
Geo (Scandinavian), a hollow, a chasm in the shore, a small inlet.—Wolfs-geo, Gui-odin, Gue-odin (Odin’s-inlet), Varren-ge-fiord, Varen-ge-ville, Varren-gue-bec.
Goe (Old Norsk), a cleft, a small opening in the land, a bay.—Red-goe, Raven-goe, Tod’s-goe, Whale-goe.
Gill (Scandinavian), a small gravelly stream, also a glen or valley; Gool, a ditch.—Row-gill, Woo-gill-tarn, Kesh-gill-burn, Esh-gill, Ive-gill, Gils-land, &c.; Goole, Gille-by, Gille-skaal, &c.
Gout, Gote, a drain or ditch, from Geotan (Anglo-Saxon), to pour.—River Goyt, Win-thorpe-gout, Trus-thorpe-gout, Tyd-gote, Got-ham, &c.
From the German Giessen, gösse, gegossen, to pour, to water, are derived—Gies-en, Giess-bach, Goss-au, &c.
Haf (Scandinavian), the sea, Havn (Danish), a haven.—Stone-haven, White-haven.
The old Haaf, Havre, Haver-ford, Hafs-lund, Frische-haf, Aland Haf, Haff of Stettin, Hafs-loe, Westman’s havn, Havn-sur-Dive, Havn-sur-Mederet, &c.
Hamn (Scandinavian), a port, bay, gulf.—Hamna-voe, Soder-hamn, Carls-hamn, Torn-hamn-sudde, Quister-ham, Go-ham, Cane-ham, Estre-ham, Ham-bye, &c.
Hatch (Provincial), a flood-gate, dam.—Mers-ham-hatch, Kelve-don-hatch.
Hyd, Hithe, Hythe (Anglo-Saxon), originally a receptacle; (2), haven; (3), coast.—Hythe, Hyde, Seche-Hythe, Rother-hithe, Green-hithe, Lamb-eth.
Holm (Scandinavian), a river island, a green plot of ground surrounded by water, low land lying along the river or ocean.—Holm, Holmes, Holm-moss, Holm-head, Holm-forth, Kirk-yet-holm, Hipper-holme, Den-holm, Steep-holm, and Flat-holm, Houlmes (near Rouen), Engo-homme, Tur-hulm (Tor-holm), Stock-holm, Hoy-holm, Borg-holm, Born-holm.
Heafod (Anglo-Saxon), the source of a stream.—Wood-head, Holm-head, Leather-head, &c.
Ig (Anglo Saxon), an island.—It assumes the various forms of Eage, Aege, Eig, &c.—Aig-burth, Eigh-ton, Eg-ham, Ight-field, Ight-ham, &c.
Kell, Keld (Scandinavian), a spring, “the gathering of water within a hill side, which then bursts out with a considerable gush, and forms a strong stream.”—Kil-ham, Kil-bourn, Kel-sal, Kil-hope, Kel-stedge, Kel-sale, Kel-sey, Lath-kill, Gunner-kild-bottom, Oer-kell, Halli-keld, Sal-keld, Kielder Moors, Kelder-vik.
Lad, Lode, Lade (Anglo-Saxon), water running into the sea, a pan for water, a drain, a pool, a gentle lake, an artificial water-course.—River Lyde or Lythe, Even-lode, West-lode, Whap-lode, Salter’s Lode-sluice, So-ham-lode, Burwell-lode, Reach-lode, Swaff-ham-lode, Lech-lade.
Lays (Provincial), lakes; Lay, a large pond.—Lowes-toft, the field of lakes; the provincial form is Lays-toft; forest of Lowes, Lowes-by, &c.
Laug (Scandinavian), water.—Bal-laugh, Lamp-lugh, Laugh-ton, Skir-laugh, Winters-lag, &c.
Lock, meeting of waters, junction of rivers.—Mat-lock, Whee-lock, Wen-lock.
Lecha, Letch, a small river.—Leck-hamp-stead, Latch-ford, Leckon-field, Letch-worth.
Lagu, Lage, Lache (Anglo-Saxon), water, a lake.—River Lac, Mort-lake, Shock-lach, Laken-heath, Ship-lake, Burg-has-lach, Dur-lach, and Lace-by.
Mere (Anglo-Saxon), a lake.—Comber-mere, Winder-mere, Col-mere, Mer-ton-Say, Hornsea-mere, Youns-mere, Ring-mer, Aves-mere; Haar-lem-mere, Alk-maar, Mor-ton, Mar-tin.
Mire, the Scandinavian form, Myri (Old Norsk), signifies a marsh or bog.—Gris-mire, Ling-mire, Wrag-mire, Sour-mire.
In Norway we find Rosse-myre, and in Iceland, Skala-myre.
We find the Frisian form, Mar, in Mar-strand, Hiel-mar, Mar-stall, Wis-mar, Wol-mar.
Mersc, Mars, Mas (Anglo-Saxon), a marsh or bog.—Mars-ton-moor, Mers-ham, Raw-marsh, Alder-mas-ton, Merst-ham, Meas-ham, Marsk, Os-mas-ton, Mas-ham, Tor-mas-ton, Mars-den, the Mash.
Perhaps the river Mease or Meuse is derived from the same root.
Mund (German), the mouth of a river; Muyden (Dutch); Mouth (English).—Rore-mund, Wel-mend, Witt-mund, Warne-munde, Munden, Muiden.
Oe (Scandinavian), an island.—Angles-ey, Guerns-ey, Aldern-ey, Shepp-ey, Nordern-ey, Wolv-ey, Holm-oe, Wragg-oe, Wag-oe, Rom-oe, Hoal-oe, Far-oe, Langer-oog, Wanger-oog, Cantal-eu, Jur-a, Isl-a, Straths-ay.
Ord, Ort (Dutch), a point, the junction of two rivers.—Havel-ort, Calv-orde, Frederiks-ort.
Ora (Anglo-Saxon), the shore, coast, border, those parts of the sea or river affording safe landing-places.—Or-ton, Hor-ton, Ore-by, Toln-ore, Hor-dle.
The Scandinavian, Eyr, Eyri, Aur, Oi, Ore, occurs in Eri-boll, Eri-sta, Ore-sund, Sand-area, Net-area, Rabbit-area.
Ofer, Ofra, Over (Anglo-Saxon), the shore, bank.—Little Over, Mickle Over, Over-leigh, Wend-over, And-over; Over-yssel, Hann-over, Over, near Cologne, Ofer, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe.
Pot (Scandinavian), the hole formed by a river in the rocks which compose its bed.—Lade-pot, Bull-pot, Spear-pots.
Piddle, Puddle (Anglo-Saxon), a thin stream.—Piddle-town, Piddle-trent-hide, River Biddel, Tol-puddle, Aff-puddle.
Pol, Pole, Pell (Anglo-Saxon), deep standing water, a detached or enclosed piece of water, a haven or harbour.—Pool-croft-hea, Pul-ham, Pel-ham, Yar-pole, Pul-borough, Pool-ey, Poles-worth, Poole, &c.
Pine (Provincial), a pit.—Wash-ford-pyne.
Pyt (Anglo-Saxon), a body of standing water, a puddle, cistern; from Pyttan, to excavate.—Putn-ey, Putten-ham, Pits-ford, Pud-sey, Pitn-ey, Wool-pit, Pit-stone, &c.
Ra (Scandinavian), a river.—Oxe-ra, Bro-ra (bridged-river), Nordu-ra.
Rea (Anglo-Saxon), Ry-ton, Rye-gate.
Run (Anglo-Saxon), a stream, water-course.—Run-ton, Run-ham.
Rack (Scandinavian), a trace, strait, channel.—Dam-rack, Sky-rack, &c.; the Race, Skage-rack.
Sola (Old High German), water, river.—Bagos-sola (bug), Salza, Saale.
Sloh, Slaew (Anglo-Saxon), a slough.—Slough, the name of several places in England.
Slaed, Slade (Anglo-Saxon), wet ground, low marshy ground.—Lin-slade, Slai-thwaite, Sled-dale, Sloten.
Spout (Scandinavian), a waterfall.—Cautley Spout, Gale-forth-spout, Spyten-vand (in Norway), Spout.
Strind, Strund (Scandinavian), the beach, sea coast.—The Strand, Whitby-strand, Flad-strund, Nord-strand, Es-strand, &c.
Sike (Scandinavian), a water course, drain.—Ful-sick, Meer-syke.
Stang (Scandinavian), a pool.—Meller-stang, Gar-stang, &c.
Strom (Scandinavian), a stream.—Stroms-a, Stroms-oe, Strom-ness, Straums-ey, Stroms-holm, and Mael-strom.
Strommer, a channel which separates the Isle of Siaeland from the Isle of Amak.
Saef, Siv (Anglo-Saxon), a rush, torrent.—The river Sheaf, Swaves-ey, &c.
Sea (Anglo-Saxon), See (German), the sea, a lake.—Sea-ham, Sea-ton, Sea-forth, Horn-sea, Whittle-sea, &c.; Lang-see, Esrum-see, Gruner-see, and Moss-see.
The Scandinavian Soe (sea), occurs in Mor-soe, Mos-soe, Sonder-soe, &c.
Skell (Scandinavian), a well, spring.—Skel-man-thorpe, Skell-eftea, Skelder-vik, Skel-ton, &c.
Sund (Scandinavian), separated, a channel, a strait.—Sunder-land, the Sound, Helle-sund, Stral-sund, &c.
Tjorn, Tern, Tarn (Scandinavian), a small lake.—Lough-rigg-tarn, Flat-tarn, Flou-tern-tarn (from Floi, Scandinavian, a bog, marsh, &c.), Angle Tarn, Beacon Tarn, Tjorn (an island off the coast of Sweden), Holms-jon, Mars-jon, Flas-jon.
Vatn, Vat, Vand (Scandinavian), water, a lake.—Apa-vatn, My-vatn, Sands-vatn, Bjork-vatn-et, Rys-vand; Olle-vat (a lake in the Hebrides), Vatn-dale, Watend-lath (in Cumberland), Steapa-vat, &c.
Sometimes Vand is changed into Water, as in Helga-water (a lake in Shetland), Ulls-water, Gates-water, Broad-water, Oude-water, Water-vliet (netherlands), Vara-bot (France).
Vaag, Voe (Scandinavian), a bay, harbour, in
Hamna-voe, harbour bay;
Selia-voe, herring bay; &c.
Vig, Vik, Wick (Scandinavian), a small bay, harbour, landing-place, town on the sea coast, mouth of a river.—Bruns-wick, Schles-wig, Laur-vig, Steen-vig, Lem-vig, Weston-vik, Bra-viken, Wool-wich, Green-wich, Har-wich, Ips-wich, Dib-ic, Cu-ic, and Green-oc.
Wath, Wade (Scandinavian), a ford.—Wath-upon-Dearne, Winder-wath, Wades-mills, Wads-ley; Waythe, Biggles-wade, Sands-vath, Waithe.
Wash (Scandinavian), an arm of the sea, a river, ford.—The Wash, Ship-wash, Vis-by, Wash-field, and Was-dale.
Well (Anglo-Saxon), a spring.—Both-well, Wyl-am, Wel-ton, Wil-land; Waedensch-wyl, Walch-wyl, Wyl-au, Hof-wyl, &c.
Wasser (German), Waes (Anglo-Saxon), water.—Wasser-burg, Wasser-trudingen, Waes-ten, Waes-land, Water-loo (water meadow), Weasen-ham, Wassen-bury, &c.
Wac (Anglo-Saxon), soft marshy ground; Wax (Scandinavian).—Wac-ton, Wax-holme, Wax-holm, Wax-ham, Whax-grove, &c.
Wael, Wheel (Provincial), a whirlpool.—Wheel-don, Weel, Weel-ey, Wheel-ton, &c.
Worth (Anglo-Saxon), an island formed by a river, a canal between the two branches of a river, a farm.—Teb-worth, Hems-worth, Tets-worth, Nails-worth, Rush-worth, Til-worth, Clos-worth, Wid-worthy, Tat-worth, Chil-worthy, Dodge-waart, Bols-waard, Holt-wierde, and Schoenen-werth.
Wychen (Anglo-Saxon), springs; Wych (Provincial), a salt spring.—Whix-ley, Wick-en, Middle-wich, Nant-wich, and Ford-wich.
(B) NAMES OF MOUNTAINS, HILLS, &c.
Bac, Beac (Anglo-Saxon), a ridge or back; Bac (Gothic), a woody mountain, an ascent or descent.
Buhel, Puhel, Buhl (German), a hill, rising ground.
Baich (Old English), a “languet of land.”—Saddle-Back, Bac-ton, Bacon’s-field, Hog’s-back, Bainton-Beacon, Inkpen-Beacon, &c.
Cæsar makes mention of a Sylva Bacen-is, which separated the Cherusci from the Suevi; and Ptolemy speaks of a Meli-boc-os, in the north of Germany. There is still a Meli-boc-us in the south of Germany.
The German form (Buhl, Puhel, &c.), occurs in
Eichen-buhl, the oak ridge;
Dun-kels-buhl, the ridge of the mountain springs;
Ross-buhl, the horse’s ridge;
Lust-buhl, the hill of pleasure.
Breg, Beorg, Beroh (Anglo-Saxon), a mountain, a hill, a heap of stones or earth; Berg Pereg (High German), Bairgs (Gothic), Bierg, Bjorg, Borg (Scandinavian).—Ha-berg-ham-caves, Wa-ber-thwaite, Wi-berg-thwaite (holy mountain path), Leg-ber-thwaite (low mountain path), Brown-berg-hill, Lang-baurgh.
Barrow and Barf occur frequently in the north of England. They are probably only slightly altered forms of Berg.—Under-barrow-scar, High-barrow-ridge, &c.; Clee-barf, Barf near (Bassen-thwaite), &c.
The German Berg is found in
Berg, Berg-en, the mountain region;
Berge-dorf, the hilly city;
Berg-heim, the hilly home;
Adels-berg, the noble’s hill;
Arns-berg, the eagles’ hill;
Alten-berg, the ancient hill;
As-perg, the ash hill;
Heidel-berg, the heath hill;
Konigs-berg, the King’s hill;
Mittel-gebirge, middle range.
The Scandinavian form Borg, appears in
Borg-loh, the hilly dwelling by the water;
Borg-holm, the hilly island;
Borg-holz-hausen, the hilly-wooded dwelling; &c.
Break (Scandinavian), the slope of a mountain, the hollow in a hill.—Mel-break, Cal-break, Lov-brekke, Skards-brekke, Sand-brekke, &c.
Calf (Scandinavian), a smaller mountain near a larger one. It is also applied to islands.—Calva, Calf, Kalva-berg (the “Calf of Man”), Calver-peak, &c.
Car (Anglo-Saxon), a rock.—Uugin-Car, Rugh Car, Gol-car, the Carrs.
Cam (Scandinavian), a summit, top.—Cam-fell, Cachede-cam, &c.
Clife, Clif, Cliffe, Clee, Clou, Clough (Anglo-Saxon), a rock.—Cleve, Old Cleeve-hill, Cleve-land, Claver-don, Cleve-don, Claver-ley, Clippes-by, Clip-stone, Clop-hill, Klop-stock, Clop-ton, Clop-ham, Cliffe, Cliff-ton, Top-cliffe, Shorne-cliffe, Swil-low-clift, Cliffe-end; Clee-thorpes, Cle-hanger, Clee-hills, Clee-barf, Cleever, Claw-ton, Cleo-bury, Clough-ton, Buc-cleugh, Cleves, Kloppen-burg.
Clump (Provincial), a heap.—Chariot-clump, Heaver-clump.
Clud, Clent (Anglo-Saxon), a piece of rock.—Pen-ket-cloud, Temple-cloud, Cloud-end, Clent-hill, Clin-ton.
Cnol (Anglo-Saxon), rising ground, a small round hill.—Falkland Knoll, Brent-knoll, Mays-knoll, Knowl-bury, Windy-knowl.
Cop (Anglo-Saxon), a top, summit.—Mold-cop, Wyle-cop, Mow-cop, War-cop, Schnee-koppe (snow top).
Dodd (Scandinavian), a mountain with a rounded summit.—Harts-op-dodd, Skiddaw-dodd.
Dun, Don, Down (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, sometimes applied to dwelling-places on hills.—The Downs, Downe, Down-ton, Leigh-down, Hunting-don, Ham-don, Snow-don, Dun-fell, Dun-mallet, Down-holm, Down-head, Duns-by, Dun-score, Duns-fold, Dun-stan.
Edge (Anglo-Saxon, Ecg), high moor-lands, the sharp ridge of a mountain.—Edge-hill, Swirrell-edge, Strathon-edge, Land-egge.
Fell, Fjeld (Scandinavian), a rock-hill, mountain chain.—Dovre-fjeld, Hardanger-fjeld (the mountains of hunger and poverty), Rute Fielle, Fal-aise, Oxen-fell, Hart-fell, Shap-fell, Bow-fell, Campsie-fells, Snae-fell, Mickle-fell.
Gare, Gore, Gor (Anglo-Saxon), a triangular piece of ground, a narrow slip of ground, generally dirty or marshy.—Water-gore, the Gore, Haven-gore-marsh.
Ha (Scandinavian), high.—Ha-wick, Ha-warden, Ha-worth, Hea-ley, Hea-laugh, Hea-ton, Hey-don, Hey-thorpe, Hey-shot, Pool-croft-hea, Hirne-ha.
Hammer (Scandinavian), a rock.—Hammer-scar, Hammer-end, Hammer-fest, Hammer-stein, Stor-hammer, Lille-hammer.
Hart, Hard (Gothic), high.—Harder-wyk, Harden-burg, the Hardt mountains.
Hawes, Haw (Scandinavian), a rock, an oblong mountain, a prospect.—Esk Haws, Buttermere Haws, Haws-water.
We find Aas (pronounced Aws), the Norwegian form, in Aas-fjeld, Aas-vand, &c.
Haugh, Houg, How, Ho, Hoo, Hov, Hoe, Hoy, &c. (Scandinavian), a hill, sepulchral mound, promontory.—Bothwell-haugh, Haugh-am, Haugh-ton, Haugh-ley, Haugh-mond-hill; Alders-haugh, Hogh-ton, Bar-haugh, Hough-ton-le-spring, Green-ough, Bere-hough, Hew-by, Kew (Kay-hough, Kay-howe); the Haugh, Haigh-ton, Scale-how, Hund-how, Red-how, Grimes-hoo, the Hoo, Haux-ley, Hax-ley, Hox-ay (the isle of the promontory), Haugs-eid (the isthmus of the hillock), Haux-ton, &c.; Loose-hoo, Iving-hoe, Stapl-oe, Hoy-land, Al-sta-haug, La Hogue, Jord-heue, Le-hou, Ne-hou, Cape Hoc, Heve, Hogues d’Isigny, Hogues de Baucy, Hoy-a, Hoy-holm.
Haus (Old Norsk), top, summit.—Herd-house, Lad-house, Husa-fell, &c.
Hang (Anglo-Saxon), a heel.—East and West Hang, Hangle-ton, Hanke-low.
Hook, Hawk, Hack, and Hoch have a similar signification.—Hace-by, Hacker-sall, Hack-ford, Hack-thorne, Hack-ness, Hack-don, Hoc-kliffe, &c.; Hawk-moor, Hook, Hooker-ton, Hook-nor-ton, Hack-sted, Hack-low.
Hohe, Hoch (German), height, high.—Hohe-geiss, Hohen-stein, Hohen-linden, Hohen-as-perg, &c.; Hoch-heim, Hoch-kirch, Hoch-wald, &c.; Hoog-veen, Hoog-meide.
Heigh, High (Anglo-Saxon), elevated.—Heigh-am, Heigh-ley, Heigh-ton, High-bray, High-ley, High-week, &c.
Heaford (Anglo-Saxon), head-top, upper.—Head-lam, Head-ley, Head-worth, Hed-don, Hed-hope, Heed-ley.
Hean (Anglo-Saxon), high.—Hean-or, Hean-wood, Hainton, Hent-land, Haun-ton.
Hope, Op, Ope (Scandinavian), the side of a hill, a sheltered spot on the side of a hill.—Hop-town, Harts-op, Harr-op, Wool-hope, Oxen-hope.
Hob (Scandinavian), a rising eminence; Heap (English).—Hob-linch, Hob-knap; Heap, Heap-ey, Heap-ham, &c.
Hul, Hyl (Anglo-Saxon), a mountain, elevation in general.—Tintin-hull, Soli-hull, Mag-hull, Hil-ton, Hil-bury, Hil-gay, Hill-am, Hillers-don, Hil-per-ton, and Hill-side.
Hofved, Hoved (Scandinavian), a head, promontory.—
Skov-hoved, wood head;
Vorms-hofved, worm’s head.
Head, when it occurs in the names of capes, promontories, &c., in England, is of Scandinavian origin.
Horn, Hurne, Hyrne, Herne (Anglo-Saxon), an angle or corner-land projecting into the sea or river, a peak.—Hirne-ha, Cold-irne, Guy-hirne, Horn-castle, Horn-sea, Horn-um, Stor-horn, Breit-horn, Tenfels-horn, Wild-horn, and Rinder-horn.
Knot (Scandinavian), a round heap.—Hard-knot, Scald-knot, School-knot, Whim-bury-knots, Knots-low.
Knaep (Anglo-Saxon), rising ground.—Mister-ton Knap, Hob-knap, &c.
Knab, the Scandinavian form, occurs in Knab-scar, the Knab, &c.; Knipe-scar, Knipen-berg.
Low, Lewe, Loe, Law (Anglo-Saxon), a small round hill.—Broad-low, Had-low, Tax-low, Mar-low, Wins-low, Hal-low, Doller-law, Bug-law-ton, Hag-loe, Lev (Scandinavian), Orms-lev, and Ors-lov.
Loppe, Hlype (Anglo-Saxon), an uneven place, a leap.—Hind-lip, Lop-ham, Lax-leip, Hous-lip-burn, Deer-leep-hill, &c.
Lynch, Link (Anglo-Saxon), ploughed ground on the side of a hill, high ground.—Stock-linch, Moor-lynch, &c.
Loft (Scandinavian), a mound.—Carl-lofts, Lof-sta, Lofta-hammar, Loft-house, Lofts-ome, &c.
Lad (Scandinavian), a pile or heap.—Lost-lad, Lad-cragg.
Klint (Scandinavian), sea rocks.—Spoel-klint, Stevens-klinte, Steyns-klint.
Mor, Moor (Anglo-Saxon), a common, highlands covered with heath; Moor (English).—Nort-moor, Backe-moor, Mor-peth.
Nap (Anglo-Saxon), a hill, peak, point, top of a hill; Neb (Scandinavian).—Nap-ton-on-the-hill, Nap Farm, Nep-ton, Nep-cote, Whinney Neb, White Nab, Con-mer Nab, the Nabs, Nabs Buts.
Ness, Naze, Nose (Scandinavian), damp, humid land stretching out into the sea, a promontory, a projecting portion of land.—Lowestoft-ness, Foul-ness, Dunge-ness, Sheer-ness, Skeg-ness, Strom-ness, Bow-ness, Scar-ness, Fur-ness, Skeg-nas, Sand-noes, the Naze.
In France, Ness takes the form of Nez.
Pike, Peak, Pig (Scandinavian), a point.—Kid-sty-pike, Dufton-pikes, Mur-ton-pikes, the Peak, Pig-don, Knock-pikes, Pick-mere, Jolly Waggon Pike, Pike-law, West-pike.
Rigg (Scandinavian), a ridge, an oblong hill; Hrigg (Anglo-Saxon), a back.
Lat-rigg, the dwelling on the ridge;
Ewan-rigg, yew ridge.
The German form, Ruck, occurs in
Ziegen-ruck, the kid’s ridge;
Hunds-ruck, the hound’s ridge.
Rise (Anglo-Saxon), Raise (Scandinavian), a mound, hill-top, a high wood, &c.—Clap-ham Rise, Rise-ley, Raise-gill, Rise-holm, Rise-brough.
Scar, Scarth, Scarf, Scor, Scree, Skrid (Scandinavian), a rock, sharp, steep, or precipitous.—Scar-borough, Scar-overton, Black Hope-scars, Scars-dale, Ul-sker, Skerry, Ul-scarth, Gate-scarth, Balder-scarth, Scarf-gap, the Screes, Scree-scar, Scrax, Skar-a, Skiel-skior, Skaa-up, Skier-um, Sten-bids-skaar, Scar-stad, Scar-ild, Ska-tunge, Einer-sker, Svart-sker, Cher-bourg, Evar-skard, Haka-scard, Skarven-Fjeld, Maastjern-skarv, Skard, Skrid, Ref-skrid, Skrids-hol, Scarthin-cliffs, Scor-burgh, Scor-ton.
Scug (Scandinavian), a declivity.—Scugger, Skugg, Skeg-ness.
Sty (Scandinavian), an ascending path.—Kid-sty-pike, Sty-head, An-sty, Hubber-sty, Stee.
The Anglo-Saxon forms are Steele, Steigle, Stege.—Ham-steel, High-stile, Long-stile, Stile, Steel Fell.
The German Steig, a path.—Occurs in Alten-steig, Stege, Steiger-wald.
Steap (Anglo-Saxon), steep.—Steep-holm, Stoupe-brow, Steep.
Shelf, Skelf (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), a crag, rock, steep places.—Shelf-anger, Shel-don, Tib-shelf, Self-stones, Ra-skelfe, &c.
Stack, Stake, Stickle (Scandinavian), a rock, peak.—Stawkers, Stack, Hay-stacks, the Stake, Harrison Stickle, Pike o’Stickle, Stickle-stad, &c.
Stert (Anglo-Saxon), a tail.—Start-point, Stert-island, &c.
Stones (Provincial), hills, heights.—Blake-low-stones, Ox-stones, Dane Head Stones, &c.
Top (Anglo-Saxon), head, summit.—Top-cliffe, Tops-ham, Lewis-top, Pon-top Pike, Tip-ton, Top-croft, &c.
Tunga (Scandinavian), a promontory, headland, applied to rocks and mountains.—Tonge-with-Haulgh, Middle Tongue, Tong-fell, Tunge-fiord, Ska-tunge, Tang-fjeld, Tungn-fell.
Weald, Wald, Wold, Wealt, Would, Wild, Welt (Anglo-Saxon), a forest, a high woodland district.—The Wealds of Kent, the Wolds of Yorkshire, Moncton-weald, Glen-whelt, Walt-ham, Cots-wold, Wold-brow, Wald-au, Wald-bach, Wald-burg, Wald-eck, Wait-by, Wald-heim, Wald-kirch, Wald-see, Ost-wolde, Wold, and Woude.
Winch, Wink (Scandinavian), a corner.—Winch-combe, Wink-field, Wink-leigh, Winchel-sea, Finkle-bridge, Winkel-seth, Rose-Winkel, Ruh-winkel, &c.
Warn, Wharn (Anglo-Saxon), steep.—Wharn-side, Wharn-cliffe, Wharn-ham.
Yoke (Scandinavian), a hill, chain.—Yoke-thwaite, Yoke-cliffe.
(C) NAMES OF VALLEYS, PLAINS, WOODS, &c.
Acre, Aker (Anglo-Saxon), a field.—West-acre, Kint-aker.
Bearw, Bearo, Bern (Anglo-Saxon), a fruitful productive wood, from Beran, to yield; Bar, Bur, a bower, knoll; Byras, woods, plots of woody ground.—Brown-ber-hill, Bram-ber, Tod-bere, Green-ber-field, Bur-ton, and Bar-ton, Sheb-beare (sheep-wood), Kentis-beare, Beer (near Seaton), Bier-low, Baum-ber (tree-wood), Bear-stead, Bears-ton, Bear-ley, Ber-don, Bur-combe, Bur-land, Burs-lem, Bur-stall, Bur-marsh, Bur-wash, Bar-ham, Bar-ford, and Bar-well.
Bearne (Provincial), a wood.—Barn-by, Barn-ey, Barn-well, Barn-ham, Barn-brough, &c.
Bit (Anglo-Saxon), a pasture.—Cow-bit, Nes-bit, &c.
Bus, Bush (Anglo-Saxon), a small wood.—Busch (German), Bosc (Scandinavian).—Bush-ey, Bos-ham, Bus-by, Bus-cot, Bush-bury, Buss of Newham, Buss of Werdie; Col-bosc, Mille-bosc, Rom-bosc, Boschen-ried, and Dicke-busch.
Bent (Provincial), a plain, field, a common.—Bent-ham, Bent-ley, Hayton’s Bent, Bent-hall, Bent-worth, Chow-bent, &c.
Botm (Anglo-Saxon), Bottom (English), a dale.—Gunner-kild-bottom, Houn-dene-bottom, Shuffle-bottom (Shaw-field-bottom), Owler-bottom, and Brook-bottom.
Car (Anglo-Saxon), a plain.—Car-ham, Car-stairs.
Chin, Chine (Anglo-Saxon), a cleft, hollow.—Chin-ley-churn, Crow-chine, &c.
Cup (Anglo-Saxon), a hollow.—Bu-cup, Cub-ley, &c.
Croft (Scandinavian), a small field.—Craw-ton, Wey-croft, Croft Farm, Sander-croft, Haver-croft, Crof-ton, Cox-croft, and Wivels-croft. In France the same root is found under the form Crottes.
Comb (Anglo-Saxon), a valley or low piece of ground, a space between two hills.—Combe, Brans-combe, Bor-combe, Clo-combe, Gat-combe, Sted-combe, Comp-ton.
Dal (Scandinavian), a valley (from Dala, to depress); Thal (German).—Scar-dale, Ken-dal, Arun-dell, Dal-wood, Dingley-dell, Co-dale, Gris-dale, Ul-dale, Dul-wich, Dul-ver-ton, Schön-thal, Rein-thal, Dussel-thal, Dal-hem, Dals-land, Dal-bye, Dal-heim, Dal-river, &c.; Dane-tal, Darne-tal, Delle du Bog, Delle du Fosse.
Deonu, Dionu, Denu, Den, Dean (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, pasture, valley, hollow, ravine, &c.—Taunton Dean, Forest of Dean, Deb-den, Cob-den, Hammer-den, Bals-dean, O-dean, Dib-den, Den-by, Den-bigh, &c.
Field, Feld (Anglo-Saxon), detached localities partly open, an open height, a plain.—Heath-field, Spring-field, Neither-field, Lang-field, &c.
The German form, Feld, occurs in Feld-berg, Feld-kirch, Lingen-feld, Hume-feld, Alten-feld, Lichter-velde, Basse-velde, &c.
Fold, Fol, Fald (Scandinavian), land district, enclosure for sheep, &c.—Nettle-ford, Ox-fold, Had-fold, Ex-fold, Ash-fold, Frith-fold, Duns-fold, &c.
Gap (Scandinavian), an opening between hills.—Raise Gap, Whin-latter-Gap, Yap-ton.
Grafe (Anglo-Saxon), a small wood, a grove.—No-bottle-grove, Bo-grove, By-grave, Graf-ton, Cot-Grave, Red-grave, and Chal-grove.
Hag, Hay, Hedge, Edge (Anglo-Saxon), a limit boundary, fence, any enclosure, a single field, a plot of ground fenced in and surrounded by an hedge; Haga (Scandinavian), Hag (Gothic), enclosed pasturage, a cultivated copse or woodland.—Hag-borne, Hag-ley, Hag-loe, Hedger-ley, Hay-don, Hay-dock, Hay, West-hay, Cut-hayes, Wil-hay, Child-hayes, Hay-ton, Hayes, Comb-hay, Hag-a, Hagen, the Hague, Hagen-au, Dorls-hagen, Falken-hagen.
Hanger, Hangra, Anger (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow near a wood, surrounded by a furrow.—Fisher-ton-anger, Clay-hanger, Anger-ton, Cle-hanger, Oke-hanger-mere.
Hat, Had, Heath (Anglo-Saxon), field; Heide, (German).—Hat-field, Hat-cliffe, Hather-leigh, Hath-ern, Hather-op, Hat-ton, Heden-ham, Had-ley, Hether-set, Hethers-gill, Het-ton, Hide, Hadden-ham, Had-don, Had-leigh, Had-low, Had-nall-ease, Had-stock, Pook-hyde, Hoath-ley, Heidel-berg, Heiden-heim, Heide.
Hayne, a cleared spot fenced in, is perhaps connected with the German Hain, small grove, wood, though it is generally considered another form of Hag, Hay, &c.—Wil-hayne, Hoober-hayne, Cown-hayne, Down-hayne, Blanken-hayn, Balken-hayn, Burg-haun, and Hain-ault.
Hese, Hyse (Anglo-Saxon), a grove, wilderness.—Hes-wall, Hes-ton, Hes-ley-Hurst, Hess-ay, His-ton, His-ket, Has-combe, Has-field, Hase-ley, Has-guard, Has-land, and Haye.
Holt, Hot, Hod (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, copse; Holz (German).—The Holts, Spars-holt, Hoddes-don, Hots-pur, Boc-holt, Borck-holt, Holz-minden, Holt-land, Holt-rup, Ter-houlde.
Hunt (Anglo-Saxon), a chase.—Fox-hunt, Ches-hunt.
Hurst, Herst, Hest, Est (Anglo-Saxon), Horst (German), Hriostr (Old Norsk), woods which produce fodder for cattle, thicket, a clump of forest trees which have not attained their full growth, or masses of standing corn.—Ew-hurst, Pens-hurst, As-hurst, Wad-hurst, Sell-hurst, Ex-hurst, Hurst-ley, Worst-ley, Fing-est, Made-hurst, Hurst, Hors-mar, Baren-horst.
Ing (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow.—Ing-birch-worth, Inger-thorpe, Ingle-by, Ing-ham, Ing-oe, Read-ing. Bark-ing, Martins-ing, Earl’s-ing-Lee.
Leagh, Lah, Leh, Lay, Lea, Ley, Leigh (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow, field, thicket, a woodland district, enclosure, place favourable to growth of grass; Loh (German); Lo, Loo (Dutch),—Had-leigh, Hor-leigh, Hoo-leigh, Pash-leigh, Mor-leigh, Bing-ley, Leigh-ton, Wark-leigh, Lay-sters, Leigh-down; Ven-lo, Water-loo, Kafer-loh, and Sapel-loh.
Lease, Laes (Anglo-Saxon), pasture land.—Lewes, Lewes-ham, Oxen-lease, Cow-leaze.
Leben (German), ground cleared of wood.—Als-leben, Aschers-leben, Eis-leben.
Ling (Anglo-Saxon), heath.—Ash-ling, Bir-ling.
Lum (Provincial), a wooded valley.—Lum-ley, Burs-lem.
Lund (Scandinavian), a wood, forest.—Lund, Laund-booth, Lund-ditch, Laun-ton, Hoff-lund, Hanging-lund.
Maed, Mead (Anglo-Saxon), a meadow.—Hot-mead, Mad-ley, Made-ley, Meth-wold, Bass-mead.
Maestene (Anglo-Saxon), a forest, grove of oak.—Sel-meston, West-meston, Mis-ter-ton.
Mearc (Anglo-Saxon), a woodland district, meadowland; Mork (Scandinavian), a wood.—Mercia, Mark (Lincoln and Somerset), Mark-ham, Mark-by, Marks-hall.
Peece, Pacce (Anglo-Saxon), dirty, watery land.—Pash-ley, Patch-am, Patch-way, Pax-ton, Pas-ton, Pax-ford.
Plas, in Plas-ket, Plass-ey, Plax-tol, has a similar signification.
Plumbe (Anglo-Saxon), a woody place.—Plum-ley, Plump-ton, Plum-stead.
Paeth (Anglo-Saxon), a way, path, entrance, road.—Mor-peth (moor-path), Pad-field, Pad-worth, Pad-bury, Pate-ly.
Rake (Provincial), a mine.—Land-rake.
Rayne (Provincial), limit, bound.—Rain-hill, Rain-ham.
Riothr, Raith (Scandinavian), a clear place, an open field; Ryde, to clear away.—Reith-by, Raith-by, Rath-mill.
Rode (German), Rode, Rod, Royd (English), land cleared or grubbed up.—Ruthyn, Rut-land, Martin-royd, Hol-royd, Hunt-royd, Orme-rod, Ack-royd, Werni-gerode, Elbin-gerode, Rod-ach, Mount Ruti, Ruthi, Oste-rode.
Skogr, Scow, Scaw, Skov, Shaw, Shoe (Scandinavian), a wood.—Scaw-ton, Scof-ton, Scow-garth, Fla-scow, We-scow, Bri-sco, Ever-saw, Auden-shaw, Skovs-hoved.
In France we find Bois d’Escoves.
Shot (Anglo-Saxon), a wood.—Scot-by, Scot-ton, Shot-ton, Alder-shot (alder-wood), Bag-shot (badger’s-wood).
Snadas, Snaed, Snad (Anglo-Saxon), a piece of land with well-defined limits without enclosures, public woods, or pasture grounds.—Snaith, Sned, Snettis-ham, Whip-snade, Snod-land.
Stock (Anglo-Saxon), a wood, enclosure.—Stock-land, Stock-linch, Taw-stock, Hal-stock, Chard-stock, Stock-holm.
Smeth, Smid, Smith (Anglo-Saxon), smooth, level ground.—Smea-ton, Smes-towe, Smith-field, Smeeth, Smeeth-cote.
Spring (Anglo-Saxon), a grove.—Spring-thorpe.
Stob, Stub, Stobbe (Anglo-Saxon), a stump.—Stobs-wood, El-stub, Stepn-ey (Steben-heath), Stub-croft, Stub-land, Stubbe-rup.
Toll (Anglo-Saxon), a small grove of lofty trees.—Toll-piddle, Tol-ton, Tel-ton, Toller-ton, Tol-land, Tole-thorpe.
Toft (Scandinavian), a field, the border of the house and homestead.—Lowes-toft, Knocking-tofts, Toft.
In France we find Hau-tot, Crique-tot, Ec-tot, Sasse-tot, Anse-tot, Ebel-toft, Enges-tofte.
Tot (Anglo-Saxon), a small grove.—Totn-ore, Tot-ham, Totten-ham, Tut-bury, Tot-land Bay, Tet-bury, Dod-pits, Tot-lets, Tot-ern-hoe.
Telgr (Scandinavian), a tract of land.—Soder-telge, Soder-telje, Norr-telge.
Tved, Thwaite (Scandinavian), a path, an isolated piece of ground, ground cleared of wood.—Lock-thwaite, Stanger-thwaite, Hall-thwaite, Line-thwaite, Tvede, Om-thvett, Skis-ved.
Wan, Wing, Wang (Anglo-Saxon), a large indefinite tract of land, a meadow.—Wang-ford, Wing-field, Wan-stead, Tongs-winge, Wanger-oog, Wang, El-wangen.
Waste (Provincial), a level.—Waste-water, Thorn-waste.
Wride (Anglo-Saxon), an intertwining, luxuriant thicket.—Wrays-bury, Writtle, Ease-writh, Wret-ham, Wret-ton, Ting-rith (Tyn-grave).
With (Scandinavian), a wood.—Ask-with, Bram-with, Wither-by, &c.
Wood (English), Weide (German), pasture ground.—Weid-au, Wid-au, Wed-more, Wid-combe, Woot-ton, Widde-combe, &c.
Wiese (German), a meadow.—Wies-baden, Wiesen-thied, &c.
(D) NAMES OF HABITATIONS.
Band (Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian), a division, boundary.—How-Band, Millstone-band, Taylor’s-gill-band, Southernly-bound, &c.
By, Bo (Scandinavian), a town, from Bua, to dwell; Byr, the town of commerce.—Kir-by, Kirk-by, Thores-by, Der-by, Den-by, Wait-by, Horns-by, Ire-by, &c.; Kirk-boe, Frode-boe, Qual-boe, By-grave, By-field, Buer-dale, Wibel-buhr, and Ochtel-buhr. In France we find this root, under the form Beuf, in Lim-beuf, Mar-beuf, Quille-beuf, and Marque-beuf.
Bold, Balt, Booth, Bottle (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling.—Shil-bottle, New-bold, New-bald, Bolt-on, Par-bold, Bootle, Lor-bottle, Booth-by, More-battle, Bot-ley, New-bottle, Boulder-dale, Buittle, Bot-ham, and Bot-hall.
Borde (Provincial), a cottage.—Bord-well, &c.
Buttel (German), a dwelling.—Wolfen-buttel, Lust-buttel, Bruns-buttel, &c.
Biggen (Provincial), a building, from Big, to build.—New-biggen, Sun-biggen (south-building), &c.
Bow, Bol (Scandinavian), a dwelling, house of a proprietor.—Bows, Bow-ness, Bow-scale Tarn (Bowness was anciently called Bol-ness, or Bul-ness), Boly, Bol-bec, Mum-ble, Strum-ble, Alden-bull, Tetten-bull, Bol-stadoren.
Burg, Bury, Borough (Anglo-Saxon), a city, place of retreat or defence.—Bury, Nether-bury, Hem-bury, Stan-bury, Sid-bury, Salis-bury (Scaro-byrig, the dry-city), Shaftes-bury (town of shafts), Burg-walter (Bridge-water), Borough-bridge, Sea-borough, Sad-borough, Water-perry, Wood-perry.
Burra-voe, Brough, and Brough-under-Stanmore are examples of the Scandinavian form, Brough.
Busta, Buster, Bust (Scandinavian), a dwelling-place, a contraction of Bol-stathr, dwelling seat. (See Bol).—Hob-bister, Swan-bister, Flad-bister, Swara-bister, Swara-ster, Mura-ster, Kirka-bister, and Busta-voe.
Chip, Cheap (Anglo-Saxon), a market.—
Chep-stow, market place;
Coup-man Beck (Coup-land Beck), merchant’s district brook;
Cot, Coat, Cote, Ket (Anglo-Saxon), a hut, salt-pit, cottage, the dwelling of the poorer classes.—
Swins-coe, swine’s cottage;
Cots-wold, the cottages of the wolds;
Cot-leigh, the cottage by the pasture;
Cottes-more the cottage by the moor; &c.
Derne (Anglo-Saxon), a solitary place.—Dearne, Darn-all, Wath-upon-Dearne, Bode-dern, Dern-yett, &c.
Dacre, Daker (Scandinavian), log-house.—Dacre, Daker-stead, &c.
Ern, Erne (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, hermitage.—Crewk-erne, Ask-ern, Kill-earn, Cow-arne, &c.
Gata (Scandinavian), a street, road, path, thoroughfare.—Fresh-water-gate, Fisher-gate, Clappers-gate, Hollow-gate, Darn-yett. Some of the leading thoroughfares in London end in Gate—e.g., Bishops-gate-street, Moor-gate-street, Kings-gate-street.
The form Gade, found in Denmark and Norway, has the same signification.—Gade-busch, &c.
Gale, Geil (Scandinavian), a dwelling in a hollow.—Gale-garth, Gale-hows, Grettis-geil, &c.
Hut, Hutte (Anglo-Saxon), a shelter, house, dwelling, &c.—Hut-ton, Hut-toft, &c.
Ham (Anglo-Saxon), Heim (German), Um (Frisian), Home (English), farm, enclosed land, a village or town; the same root occurs in Ham-let.—High-ham, Low-ham, East-ham, Ham-don, Hamp-ton, Ham-burgh, Dront-heim, Blen-heim, Hus-um, Hol-um, Fisk-um, Skiv-um, Ann-ham, and Zel-ham.
Garth, Guards (Scandinavian), an enclosed place; Yard (Anglo-Saxon).—Mel-guards, Stain-garth, Sky-garth, Gas-garth, Cal-garth, Bro-gar, Land-guards, Lan-gar, Humble-yard, and Yard-ley.
Hall, Ealh (Anglo-Saxon), a castle, mansion, house of a king, a temple; Alhs (Gothic).—Hal-twistle, Hal-stock, Lilles-hall, Coppen-hall, Darn-all, Ala-darp, Als-hein, and Als-feld.
Hold, Hald (Anglo-Saxon), tenement, fortress.—Hold-shott, Hold-fast, Hold-gate, Holden-by, Halder-ness, and Neu-Haldens-leben.
Helm (Provincial), hovel, cottage.—Helm-don, Helm-ley, &c.
Hem (Anglo Saxon), limit, border.—Hem-don, Hem-bury, Hem-ley, &c.
Herne (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, retired place.—Lan-herne, Mat-herne, Herne-Bay, Herne-hill, &c. (See Ern).
House (English); Hus, Huus (Scandinavian); Haus, Hausen, Husen, Sen (German), a residence.—Hus-thwaite, Wood-house, Bo-hus-land, Ar-os, Aa-huus, Haus-ruck, Schaff-hausen, Borg-holz-hausen, Ink-huizen, Al-sen, and As-sens.
Hof, Hoven (German), a court, temple; Hof (Scandinavian).—There is near Appleby a village called Hoff; Hoff-row, Hoff-common, and Hoff-lund are places containing the same root.
In, Inne (Anglo-Saxon), an enclosure, occupied by the proprietor.—In-gars-by, In-gate-stone, In-skip-with, In-golds-by, En-field, In-ward-leigh.
Kirke, Kirk (Scandinavian), a church.—Kir-by, Kirk-by, Aa-kirke, Dun-kirk, &c.
Lath, Laith (Scandinavian), a barn.—Lath-kill, Laith-kirk, Lath-bury, &c.
Land (Scandinavian), a district.—Nat-land, Mor-land, Ly-land, Rus-land, Gar-land, &c.
Mel (Gothic), a boundary.—Mel-guards, Mel-beck, Cart-mell-fel, Meal-rigg, Mel-ay.
Pightle, Pigle, Pingle (Anglo-Saxon), a small parcel of land enclosed with hedges, a field adjoining the farm-house.—Pightels-thorne, Pigles-thorne, and Pit-stone.
Ray, Reay (Scandinavian), a corner.—Reay, Dock-ray, Elle-ray, &c.
Rick (Provincial), a district.—Rast-rick, Land-rick, Lind-rick, Mar-rick; Reich, Rich (German), Reichen-hall, Reichen-au, Au-rich, and Ell-rich.
Row, Rowe (Anglo-Saxon), a street.—Row-botham, Hoff-row, Hard-row, Row-land, &c.
Sad (Anglo-Saxon), a camp.—Sad-borough, Sed-bergh.
Scale, Shiel, Shield (Scandinavian) a log-house, fisherman’s hut.—Scale-force, Thorny-scale, Bon-scale, Hud-scales, Scale-hill, North Shields, South Shields, Lin-sheels, Shill-hill.
Sel, Sele, Sale (Anglo-Saxon), a hall, mansion, seat.—Bo-sell, Kel-sale, Sel-side, Sale-fell, Sel-by, Buer-sill, Bruch-sal and Up-sala (high halls.)
Set, Seta (Anglo-Saxon), Seat, Side (Scandinavian), a seat or dwelling, pasture upon a mountain side.—Lang-sett, Somer-set, Dor-set, Settle, Shottle, As-kel-side, Orm-side, Raven-side, Seat-allan, Seat-Robert, Seat-oller, Out-seats, Thor-set, and Ulv-set.
Shir, Shire (Anglo-Saxon), a division.—Shares-hill, Sher-wood, Sharn-brook, Half-shire, &c.
Shed, Shad (Anglo-Saxon) a division.—Shad-well, Shad-forth, Shad-ox-hurst, &c.
Skans (Scandinavian), a fort.—Scan-dale.
Skew (Scandinavian), a place in a corner.—Scale-sceugh, Barn-skew, A-skew, North-sceugh.
Sok (Anglo-Saxon), a ward.—Sock-burn, Sock-hyre, &c.
Stall, Stell (Anglo-Saxon) a residence.—Bor-stall, Hep-ton-stall, Tun-stall, Bo-stell, Heiken, Borg-stell (a residence on the side of a hill).
Staple, Stapol, Stable (Anglo-Saxon), a market place, an establishment.—Staple, Barn-staple, Staple-ton, Stapl-oe, Staple-ford.
Stead (Anglo-Saxon), Stadr, Ster (Scandinavian), the site of a building, a mansion.—Kirk-steads, Hamp-stead, Ash-stead, Stead-combe, the Staithe, Staithes, Brab-ster, Wolf-ster, Honi-ster, Ul-ster, Lein-ster, Mun-ster, Y-stad, Neu-stadt, Strom-stratt, and Staden.
Stitches (Anglo-Saxon), deep narrow furrows for draining land.—Stitch-bury, Stitchel, Stetch-worth.
Stoke (Anglo-Saxon), a place by the water.—Stoke, Stoke-Pogis, &c.
Stow (Anglo Saxon) a place, village; Stoe, Sta (Scandinavian).—Stowe, Chep-stow, Sme-stow, Bri-stol, Stow-market, Stow-on-the-Wold, Dock-sta (marshy-place), Bro-sta (bridge-village), Fog-stoen, Haver-stoe (oat-village), and Mogle-stue.
Thing (Scandinavian), a council.—Thing-oe, Ding-wall.
Thorpe, Torp, Drup, Rup, Up (Scandinavian), a village; Torf, Dorf (German).—Col-thorpe, Adles-trop, Soul-drop, Cracken-thorpe (crow-village), Hack-thorpe, Ebers-dorf, Al-torf, Hump-drup, Brade-rup.
Ton, Tun (Anglo-Saxon), an enclosure, town.—Ac-ton, Wes-ton, New-ton, Clay-ton, Tun-bridge, Tun-stall, Eas-tyn, As-ten.
Twistle, Twizle (Anglo-Saxon), a border, boundary.—Ex-twistle, Hal-twistle, Hau-twysel, Tin-twisel, Twizell, Twisel.
Tye (Anglo-Saxon), a district.—Tee-ton, the Tyes, Tew, Teigh, Tey.
War, Wark (Scandinavian), a fortification.—Ne-wark, Grims-argh, South-wark, War-cop, Wark-leigh, Lessoe-varks, Wark-um.
Ward (Anglo-Saxon), a watch, guard, &c.—Ward-le, Ward-en, Wart-hill.
Wall, Vold (Scandinavian), a rampart, mound, fortification.—Ting-wall, Kirk-wall, Wall-op, Ude-valla, Eids-vold.
Weiler (German), a dwelling station.—Esch-weiler, Buchs-weiler.
Won, Win (Anglo-Saxon), a dwelling, possession.—Won-ersh, Won-ton, Won-ford.
LONDON: JUDD & GLASS, NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS, E. C.
Typesetting errors (misplaced, wrong or missing punctuation; use of italics and upper case letters) have been corrected. For the most part, place names have not been checked for accuracy: the large number of them made this impractical. A few spelling mistakes that were apparent have, though, been corrected.
End of Project Gutenberg’s The Etymology of Local Names, by R. Morris
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